129,085 research outputs found

    Testosterone Trajectories and Reference Ranges in a Large Longitudinal Sample of Male Adolescents

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    Pubertal dynamics plays an important role in physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. We aim to provide reference ranges of plasma testosterone in a large longitudinal sample. Furthermore, we describe a measure of testosterone trajectories during adolescence that can be used in future investigations of development.We carried out longitudinal measurements of plasma testosterone in 2,216 samples obtained from 513 males (9 to 17 years of age) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used integration of a model fitted to each participant's testosterone trajectory to calculate a measure of average exposure to testosterone over adolescence. We pooled these data with corresponding values reported in the literature to provide a reference range of testosterone levels in males between the ages of 6 and 19 years.The average values of total testosterone in the ALSPAC sample range from 0.82 nmol/L (Standard Deviation [SD]: 0.09) at 9 years of age to 16.5 (SD: 2.65) nmol/L at 17 years of age; these values are congruent with other reports in the literature. The average exposure to testosterone is associated with different features of testosterone trajectories such as Peak Testosterone Change, Age at Peak Testosterone Change, and Testosterone at 17 years of age as well as the timing of the growth spurt during puberty.The average exposure to testosterone is a useful measure for future investigations using testosterone trajectories to examine pubertal dynamics

    A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in saliva: Monitoring of testosterone replacement therapy with testosterone buciclate

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    Monitoring of testosterone replacement therapy requires a reliable method for testosterone measurement. Determination of salivary testosterone, which reflects the hormone's biologically active plasma fraction, is a superior technique for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to establish a new sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the accurate measurement of testosterone levels in saliva and to validate it by monitoring testosterone replacement therapy in eight hypogonadal men. A clinical phase I- study with the new ester testosterone buciclate was performed to search for new testosterone preparations to produce constant serum levels in the therapy of male hypogonadism. After two control examinations eight male patients with primary hypogonadism were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 2x4) and given single doses of either 200 mg (group I) or 600 mg (group II) testosterone buciclate intramuscularly. Saliva and blood samples were obtained 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days post injection and then weekly for three months. The time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for salivary testosterone shows a detection limit of 16 pmol/l, an intra-assay CV of 8.9% (at a testosterone concentration of 302 pmol/l), an inter-assay CV of 8.7% (at a testosterone concentration of 305 pmol/l) and a good correlation with an established radioimmunsassay of r = 0.89. The sample volume required by this method is only 180 mu l for extraction and duplicate determination. The assay procedure requires no more than three hours. In group I (200 mg) testosterone did not increase to normal levels either in saliva or in serum. However, in group II, androgen levels increased significantly and were maintained in the normal range for up to 12 weeks with maximal salivary testosterone levels of 303 +/- 18 pmol/l (mean+/-SE) and maximal testosterone levels of 13.1 +/- 0.9 nmol/l (mean+/-SE) in serum in study week 6 and 7. The time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for salivary testosterone provides a useful tool for monitoring androgen status in men and women and is well suited for the follow-up of testosterone replacement therapy on an outpatient basis. The long-acting ester testosterone buciclate is a promising agent for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism and in combination with testosterone monitoring in saliva offers an interesting new perspective for male contraception

    Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations in human testis and epididymis during the first two years of life

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    Testosterone and androstenedione were measured in testicular and epididymal tissue of 37 previously healthy infants between 1 and 24 months of age who died suddenly. In half of the patients elevated plasma levels of cortisol and androstenedione suggested preterminal stress. Plasma testosterone levels, however, did not differ from those in healthy infants. Testicular testosterone concentrations were maximal in boys from 1-3 months of age (median, 36.6 ng/g; range, 7-380 ng/g) with peak values similar to those found in pubertal or even adult testes. Thereafter testicular testosterone concentrations decreased and after the age of 6 months all values were below 12.5 ng/g, which corresponds to the low normal range of older prepubertal boys. Plasma testosterone and testicular testosterone correlated significantly (P less than 0.001). On average the testicular concentrations were 36.4 times higher than the corresponding plasma concentrations. Testicular androstenedione was low but correlated significantly with testicular testosterone (P less than 0.001). Epididymal testosterone concentrations were surprisingly high (1-3 months: median, 10.3 ng/g; range, 4-42.7 ng/g) and averaged 30% of the testicular testosterone concentration. Thus, epididymal testosterone concentrations were significantly higher than the circulating plasma testosterone levels, indicating the capacity of the infant epididymis to accumulate androgens. These findings suggest that high local testosterone concentrations during early infancy are important not only for the testis itself but particularly for the developing epididymi

    Heritability of testosterone levels in 12-year-old twins and its relation to pubertal development

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    The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of variation in testosterone levels in 12-year-old children, and to explore the overlap in genetic and environmental influences on circulating testosterone levels and androgen dependent pubertal development. Midday salivary testosterone samples were collected on two consecutive days in a sample of 183 unselected twin pairs. Androgen induced pubertal development was assessed using self report Tanner scales of pubic hair development (boys and girls) and genital development (boys). A significant contribution of genetic effects to the variance in testosterone levels was found. Heritability was approximately 50% in both boys and girls. The remaining proportion of the variance in testosterone levels could be explained by non-shared environmental influences. The relatively high correlation between testosterone levels of opposite sex dizygotic twins suggests that sex differences in genes influencing variation in testosterone levels have not yet developed in pre- and early puberty. Variance in pubertal development was explained by a large genetic component, moderate shared environmental influences, and a small non-shared environmental effect. Testosterone levels correlated moderately (r = .31) with pubertal development; the covariance between testosterone levels and pubertal development was entirely accounted for by genetic influences

    No evidence for associations between men's salivary testosterone and responses on the Intrasexual Competitiveness Scale

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    Objectives: Many previous studies have investigated relationships between men’s competitiveness and testosterone. For example, the extent of changes in men’s testosterone levels following a competitive task predicts the likelihood of them choosing to compete again. Recent work investigating whether individual differences in men’s testosterone levels predict individual differences in their competitiveness have produced mixed results. Methods: In light of the above, we investigated whether men’s (N = 59) scores on the Intrasexual Competitiveness Scale were related to either within-subject changes or between-subject differences in men’s salivary testosterone levels. Results: Men’s responses on the Intrasexual Competitiveness Scale did not appear to track within-subject changes in testosterone. By contrast with one recent study, men’s Intrasexual Competitiveness Scale also did not appear to be related to individual differences in testosterone. Conclusions: Our results present no evidence for associations between men’s testosterone and their responses on the Intrasexual Competitiveness Scale

    The Acute Responses of Different-sized Coronary Arteries to Testosterone

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    Coronary arteries supply blood to the myocardium. The blood flow within the coronary arteries is altered by various compounds produced within the body. Sex hormones such as testosterone are known to cause the relaxation of large coronary arteries. But the response to testosterone is greater in in vivo conditions compared to in vitro conditions. We hypothesize that the responses of LADs (left anterior descending arteries) and its side branches to testosterone are heterogeneous and testosterone-induced vasodilation is greater in its side branches. Therefore, our study was designed to determine the effect of testosterone in different-sized coronary arteries. LADs and one of its side branches were isolated from porcine hearts and mounted in organ baths to mimic in vivo conditions. The coronary arteries were then preconstricted with potassium chloride (KCl) and administered increasing concentrations of testosterone to determine if the responses to testosterone vary within different regions of the coronary circulation. The testosterone caused significant relaxation in both LADs and its side branches. However the side branches showed similar responses to testosterone as compared to the larger, upstream LADs. Further studies on androgen receptor expression using real time PCR indicated that androgen receptor expression was higher in LADs than its side branches. A third group of small coronary arteries exhibited greater androgen receptor expression than the LADs and its side branches. The enhanced testosterone-induced vascular reactivity exhibited in vivo may be at the level of the small coronary arteries, not the LAD and its side branches

    Does the interaction between cortisol and testosterone predict men's facial attractiveness?

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    Although some researchers have suggested that the interaction between cortisol and testosterone predicts ratings of men’s facial attractiveness, evidence for this pattern of results is equivocal. Consequently, the current study tested for a correlation between men’s facial attractiveness and the interaction between their cortisol and testosterone levels. We also tested for corresponding relationships between the interaction between cortisol and testosterone and ratings of men’s facial health and dominance (perceived traits that are correlated with facial attractiveness in men). We found no evidence that ratings of either facial attractiveness or health were correlated with the interaction between cortisol and testosterone. Some analyses suggested that the interaction between cortisol and testosterone levels may predict ratings of men’s facial dominance, however, with testosterone being more closely related to facial dominance ratings among men with higher cortisol. Our results suggest that the relationship between men’s facial attractiveness and the interaction between cortisol and testosterone is not robust

    Testosterone insulin-like effects: an in vitro study on the short-term metabolic effects of testosterone in human skeletal muscle cells

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    Testosterone by promoting different metabolic pathways contributes to short-term homeostasis of skeletal muscle, the largest insulin-sensitive tissue and the primary site for insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. Despite evidences indicate a close relationship between testosterone and glucose metabolism, the molecular mechanisms responsible for a possible testosterone-mediated insulin-like effects on skeletal muscle are still unknown

    High Glucose, But Not Testosterone, Increases Platelet Aggregation Mediated by Endothelial Cells

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    Endothelial cells inhibit platelet aggregation by releasing thromboregulators, such as prostacyclin and nitric oxide. Male subject is a traditional risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Platelet hyperreactivity has been frequently found in patient with diabetes mellitus. To examine whether testosterone and high glucose modify platelet aggregation through endothelial cells, we did an in vitro study using endothelial cells culture from human umbilical vein (HUVEC). Treatments were performed in HUVEC sub culture as either normoglucose (5.6 mM) or high glucose (22.4 mM) medium, with or without testosterone (0, 1, 10, 100 nM), for 24 hours. HUVEC were trypsinized, resuspended, and then incubated with platelet rich plasma from healthy male donors with ratio 1:104 for 3 minutes. Platelet aggregation measured by turbidimetry methode. This study showed that testosterone did not significantly influence platelet aggregation through endothelial cells in normoglucose (p = 0.144) or high glucose (p = 0.916) medium. There was no main effect of testosterone (p = 0.73) as well as no interaction between testosterone and glucose (p = 0.69), but there was a main effect of glucose (p = 0.004), to platelet aggregation through endothelial cells. In conclusion, high glucose, but not testosterone, inhibits platelet aggregation mediated by endothelial cells
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