22,183 research outputs found

    Trans-fatty acid blood levels of industrial but not natural origin are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with HFpEF: a secondary analysis of the Aldo-DHF trial

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    BACKGROUND Industrially processed trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA) have been linked to altered lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and increased NT-proBNP. In patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), associations of TFA blood levels with patient characteristics are unknown. METHODS This is a secondary analysis of the Aldo-DHF-RCT. From 422 patients, individual blood TFA were analyzed at baseline in n = 404 using the HS-Omega-3-Index®^{®} methodology. Patient characteristics were: 67 ± 8 years, 53% female, NYHA II/III (87/13%), ejection fraction ≥ 50%, E/e' 7.1 ± 1.5; NT-proBNP 158 ng/L (IQR 82-298). A principal component analysis was conducted but not used for further analysis as cumulative variance for the first two PCs was low. Spearman's correlation coefficients as well as linear regression analyses, using sex and age as covariates, were used to describe associations of whole blood TFA with metabolic phenotype, functional capacity, echocardiographic markers for LVDF and neurohumoral activation at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS Blood levels of the naturally occurring TFA C16:1n-7t were inversely associated with dyslipidemia, body mass index/truncal adiposity, surrogate markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and inflammation at baseline/12 months. Conversely, IP-TFA C18:1n9t, C18:2n6tt and C18:2n6tc were positively associated with dyslipidemia and isomer C18:2n6ct with dysglycemia. C18:2n6tt and C18:2n6ct were inversely associated with submaximal aerobic capacity at baseline/12 months. No significant association was found between TFA and cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS In HFpEF patients, higher blood levels of IP-TFA, but not naturally occurring TFA, were associated with dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and lower functional capacity. Blood TFAs, in particular C16:1n-7t, warrant further investigation as prognostic markers in HFpEF. Higher blood levels of industrially processed TFA, but not of the naturally occurring TFA C16:1n-7t, are associated with a higher risk cardiometabolic phenotype and prognostic of lower aerobic capacity in patients with HFpEF

    The clinical, radiological, microbiological, and molecular profile of the skin-penetration site of transfemoral amputees treated with bone-anchored prostheses.

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    The breach of the skin barrier is a critical issue associated with the treatment of individuals with transfemoral amputation (TFA) using osseointegrated, percutaneous titanium implants. Thirty TFA patients scheduled for abutment exchange or removal were consecutively enrolled. The aims were to determine the macroscopic skin signs, the presence of bacteria and the gene expression in abutment-adherent cells and to conduct correlative and comparative analyses between the different parameters. Redness and a granulation ring were present in 47% of the patients. Bacteria were detected in 27/30 patients, commonly in the bone canal. Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common. A positive correlation was found between TNF-α expression and the detection of S. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus together with other bacterial species revealed a positive relationship with MMP-8 expression. A negative correlation was demonstrated between the length of the residual femur bone and the detection of a granulation ring and E. faecalis. A positive correlation was revealed between fixture loosening and pain and the radiological detection of endosteal bone resorption. Fixture loosening was also correlated with the reduced expression of interleukin-10 and osteocalcin. It is concluded that several relationships exist between clinical, radiological, microbiological, and molecular assessments of the percutaneous area of TFAs. Further long term studies on larger patient cohorts are required to determine the precise cause-effect relationships and unravel the role of host-bacteria interactions in the skin, bone canal and on the abutment for the longevity of percutaneous implants as treatment of TFA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 578-589, 2017

    Clinical Effects of Halothane Concentration on Trifluoroacetic Acid Excretion in Urine

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    Excreted amount of urinary trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) during and after halothane anesthesia in twelve surgical patients was determined isotachophoretically. The levels of urinary TFA which amount was zero or a trace during the anesthesia increased after discontinuation of halothane inhalation. The values of daily excreted TFA were the highest on the 2.1±0.3 postoperative day (M±SEM). The urinary TFA values of patients inhaling a low concentration (0.8%) of halothane reverted to zero or a trace level on the 11.2±1.0 postoperative day (M±SEM) and the total amount of averaged 21.53 ± 3.23 mmol (M ± SEM). In patients to levels seen on the 7 .0 ± 0.6 postoperative day (M±SEM) and the total amount of TFA excreted was 20.20±4.77 mmol (M±SEM). These clinical findings indicate that the aerobic biotransformation of halothane after anesthesia is enhanced by high concentration of halothane.Supported in part by Research Grants No.57480297 and 57570564 from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan. Presented in part at the 7th World Congress of Anesthesiologists, Hamburg, September 1980

    The transverse facial artery anatomy : implications for plastic surgery procedures

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    BACKGROUND:The transverse facial artery (TFA) perfuses the lateral face. Knowledge of topographical anatomy of the lateral face is crucial for safe procedural performance in aesthetic and plastic surgery, especially the face lift flap and face transplant. The aim of the present study was to assess detailed TFA morphometrical features. PATIENTS AND METHODS:One-hundred computed tomography head angiographies were analyzed. TFA numbers and origins were recorded bilaterally (200 cases). TFA diameters and lengths in addition to their positions in relation to neighboring vessels and the zygomatic arches were measured. RESULTS:TFA was present in 96% of cases (192/200, left = 97, right = 95). A single TFA was present in 95.3% and double TFAs were present in 4.7% of cases. In 91.7%, the TFA originated from the superficial temporal artery, and in 3.1%, it originated from the external carotid artery. One left TFA originated from the maxillary artery. The TFA was significantly longer on the right than on the left side (56.6±26.0 versus 47.3±22.2 mm; p = 0.03). The TFA mean diameter was 1.0±0.4 mm (range: 0.4-2.2 mm) with no difference between face sides. TFA length correlated with its diameter (r = 0.46, p <0.05). The TFA always originated below the zygomatic arch, and it should be found in the 8.8 mm wide area beginning 17.0mm below the lower border of the zygomatic arch. CONCLUSIONS:The TFA has a significant role in lateral face vascularization, and absence of this vessel is very uncommon

    The influence of socio-economic deprivation on mobility, participation and quality of life following major lower extremity amputation in the West of Scotland

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    Objective: Lower extremity amputation (LEA) is more common in people from lower socio-economic groups. This study examined this further by investigating the influence of socio-economic status on mobility, participation, and quality of life (QoL) after LEA. Methods: Prospective data were gathered for all LEAs performed in one year in one Scottish Health Board, commencing March 2014. A postcode derived Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was applied by quintile (SIMD 1 = most deprived). Routine data were collected on the cohort of 171 patients; 101 participants consented and received postal questionnaires on QoL (EQ-5D-5L), participation (Reintegration to Normal Living Index [RNLI]), and mobility (Prosthetic Limb User Survey of Mobility), six (n = 67) and 12 months (n = 50) after LEA. Results: The mean ± SD age of the cohort was 66.2 ± 11.4 years; 75% were male and 53% had diabetes. In total, 67% lived in SIMD 1 and 2 and 11.1% in SIMD 5. Sixty per cent had a transtibial amputation. Mortality was 6% at 30 days 17% at six, and 29% at 12 months. Those in SIMD 1 were significantly younger (62.9 years) than those in SIMD 5 (76.3 years). Significantly more participants with a transfemoral amputation (TFA) lived in SIMD 1 (44%) compared with SIMD 5 (11%) (p = .004). Participation was low (RNLI scores: 6 months = 55.7; 12 months = 56.6) and PLUS M scores suggested mobility was poor overall at six (39.1) and 12 months (38.9). Mean QoL was 0.37 at 6 months and 0.33 at 12 months. Conclusion: Although this study observed more LEAs in those from low socio-economic areas, it is impossible to conclude whether QoL after LEA is truly influenced by socio-economic status. There was an association between the disproportionately high rate of LEAs in SIMD groups 1 and 2 and the high prevalence of smoking, 61% vs. only 21% of those in the least deprived areas (SIMD 3, 4, and 5) being current smokers

    Quantifying the Socio-Economic Benefits of Reducing Industrial Dietary Trans Fats: Modelling Study.

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    BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of UK mortality, generating a large and unequal burden of disease. Dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) represent a powerful CHD risk factor, yet to be addressed in the UK (approximately 1% daily energy) as successfully as in other nations. Potential outcomes of such measures, including effects upon health inequalities, have not been well quantified. We modelled the potential effects of specific reductions in TFA intake on CHD mortality, CHD related admissions, and effects upon socioeconomic inequalities. METHODS & RESULTS: We extended the previously validated IMPACTsec model, to estimate the potential effects of reductions (0.5% & 1% reductions in daily energy) in TFA intake in England and Wales, stratified by age, sex and socioeconomic circumstances. We estimated reductions in expected CHD deaths in 2030 attributable to these two specific reductions. Output measures were deaths prevented or postponed, life years gained and hospital admissions. A 1% reduction in TFA intake energy intake would generate approximately 3,900 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3,300-4,500) fewer deaths, 10,000 (8,800-10,300) (7% total) fewer hospital admissions and 37,000 (30,100-44,700) life years gained. This would also reduce health inequalities, preventing five times as many deaths and gaining six times as many life years in the most deprived quintile compared with the most affluent. A more modest reduction (0.5%) would still yield substantial health gains. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing intake of industrial TFA could substantially decrease CHD mortality and hospital admissions, and gain tens of thousands of life years. Crucially, this policy could also reduce health inequalities. UK strategies should therefore aim to minimise industrial TFA intake

    Cardiac Catheterizations in Patients With Prior Coronary Bypass Surgery:Impact of Access Strategy on Short-Term Safety and Long-Term Efficacy Outcomes

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    Little data are available on access strategy outcomes for cardiac catheterizations in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). We investigated the effect of transradial access (TRA) and transfemoral access (TFA) on short-term major vascular complications (MVC) and long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, 1084 patients met our inclusion criteria (TRA = 469; TFA = 615). The cumulative incidence for the primary safety endpoint MVC at 30 days (a composite of major bleeding, retroperitoneal hematoma, dissection, pseudoaneurysm, and arteriovenous fistula) was lower with TRA (0.7% vs 3.0%, P &lt;.01) and this difference remained significant after propensity score adjustment (odds ratio: 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.83; P =.024). The cumulative incidence for the primary efficacy endpoint MACE at 36 months (a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and urgent target vessel revascularization) was 28.6% with TRA and 27.6% with TFA, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves showed no difference for the primary efficacy endpoint (P =.65). Contrast use (mL) was significantly lower with TRA (130 [100-180] vs 150 [100-213], P &lt;.01). In conclusion, in patients with prior CABG, TRA was associated with significantly fewer short-term MVC and contrast use, but not with a difference in long-term MACE, compared with TFA.</p

    Spinopelvic sagittal alignment of patients with transfemoral amputation

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    This study aims to describe the spinopelvic sagittal alignment in transfemoral amputees (TFAs) from a radiologic study of the spine with a postural approach to better understand the high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in this population. METHODS: TFAs underwent X-rays with 3-D reconstructions of the full spine and pelvis. Sagittal parameters were analyzed and compared to the literature. Differences between TFAs with and without LBP were also observed. RESULTS: Twelve subjects have been prospectively included (TFA-LBP group (n = 5) and TFA-NoP group (n = 7)). Four of the five subjects of the TFA-LBP group and two of the seven in TFAs-NoP group had an imbalanced sagittal posture, especially regarding the T9-tilt, significantly higher in the TFA-LBP group than in the TFA-NoP (p = 0.046). Eight subjects (6 TFA-NoP and 2 TFA-LBP) had abnormal low value of thoracic kyphosis (TK). Moreover, the mean angle of TK in the TFA-NoP group was lower than in the TFA-LBP group (p = 0.0511). CONCLUSION: In the considered sample, TFAs often present a sagittal imbalance. A low TK angle seems to be associated with the absence of LBP. It can be hypothesized that this compensatory mechanism of the sagittal imbalance is the most accessible in this population. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the sagittal balance of the pelvis and the spine in patients with a TFA to better understand the high prevalence of LBP in this population. It should be completed by the analysis of the spinopelvic balance and the lower limbs in 3D. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material

    Factors influencing quality of life following lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial occlusive disease: a systematic review of the literature

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    Background: The majority of lower limb amputations are undertaken in people with peripheral arterial occlusive disease,\ud and approximately 50% have diabetes. Quality of life is an important outcome in lower limb amputations; little is known\ud about what influences it, and therefore how to improve it.\ud Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to identify the factors that influence quality of life after lower limb\ud amputation for peripheral arterial occlusive disease.\ud Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane databases were searched to identify\ud articles that quantitatively measured quality of life in those with a lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial occlusive\ud disease. Articles were quality assessed by two assessors, evidence tables summarised each article and a narrative\ud synthesis was performed.\ud Study design: Systematic review.\ud Results: Twelve articles were included. Study designs and outcome measures used varied. Quality assessment scores\ud ranged from 36% to 92%. The ability to walk successfully with a prosthesis had the greatest positive impact on quality\ud of life. A trans-femoral amputation was negatively associated with quality of life due to increased difficulty in walking\ud with a prosthesis. Other factors such as older age, being male, longer time since amputation, level of social support and\ud presence of diabetes also negatively affected quality of life.\ud Conclusion: Being able to walk with a prosthesis is of primary importance to improve quality of life for people with lower\ud limb amputation due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease. To further understand and improve the quality of life of this\ud population, there is a need for more prospective longitudinal studies, with a standardised outcome measure