54,540 research outputs found

    Weed problems and possibilities for their control in salix for biomass

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    Salix is a dedicated arable bioenergy crop that is presently grown on 12,000 ha in Sweden. It has probably the best environmental profile among the arable bioenergy crops grown in Sweden partly because neither fungicides nor insecticides are used in the production. However, herbicides are used routinely, because salix plants are very sensitive, especially during the first growing season, to competition from weeds. Hence, to improve the environmental profile of salix even further, alternative weed control methods that complement or for substitute the use of herbicides are desired. Some of these alternatives might be to improve the mechanical weeding techniques, using cover crops, applying herbicides more accurately or to breed for weed competitiveness. The purpose of this introductory paper is therefore to review what is known about weeds in relation to biomass salix. To put this subject into context there will first be a general overview of salix and the current production system

    Willow Cultivars

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    The State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF) presents fact sheets on Salix purpurea ‚ÄėAllegany‚Äô, Salix sachalinensis √ó S. miyabeana ‚ÄėCanastota‚Äô, Salix purpurea ‚ÄėFish Creek‚Äô, Salix purpurea √ó S. miyabeana ‚ÄėMillbrook‚Äô, Salix purpurea √ó S. miyabeana ‚ÄėOneida‚Äô, Salix purpurea ‚ÄėOnondaga‚Äô, Salix viminalis √ó S. miyabeana ‚ÄėOtisco‚Äô, Salix viminalis √ó S. miyabeana ‚ÄėOwasco‚Äô, Salix eriocephala ‚ÄėS25‚Äô, Salix caprea hybrid ‚ÄėS365‚Äô, Salix sachalinensis √ó S. miyabeana ‚ÄėSherburne‚Äô, Salix √ó dasyclados ‚ÄėSV1‚Äô, Salix sachalinensis ‚ÄėSX61‚Äô, Salix miyabeana ‚ÄėSX64‚Äô, Salix miyabeana ‚ÄėSX67‚Äô, Salix viminalis √ó S. miyabeana ‚ÄėTully Champion‚Äô

    Aportaciones al conocimiento del g√©nero Salix L. (Salicaceae) en la provincia de Le√≥n (NW Espa√Īa)

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    Los autores han reconocido en el territorio estudiado 5 táxones del subgénero Salix y 7 del subgénero Vetrix así como 16 híbridos. Consideran a S. neotricha una especie independiente de S. fragilis. Se describen los siguientes híbridos: Salix x expectata, Salix x pormensis, Salix x viridifolia, Salix x pseudosalvifolia, Salix x longissima, Salix x pseudoelaeagnos, Salix x multidentata y Salix x rijosa.De cada taxon se aporta la distribución en la provincia de León en base a la cartografía UTM de 10 km de lado, así como su comportamiento fitosociológico.Se aportan tres claves dicotómicas para la diferenciación de los táxones del género Salix en la provincia de León basándose en los amentos masculinos y femeninos, así como la morfología foliar.The autors have recognized in the studied territory 5 taxa of the Salix subgenus and 7 of the Vetrix subgenus as well as sixteen hybrids. They consider S. neotricha an independent species from S. fragilis. The following hybrids are described: Salix x expectata, Salix x pormensis, Salix x viridifolia, Salix x pseudosalvifolia, Salix x longissima, Salix x pseudoelaeagnos, Salix x multidentata and Salix x rijosa.We give the chorology of each taxon in León province on maps with UTM coordinates of 10 km, as well as its phytosociological behaviour.Three dichotomic keys are given in order to identify the taxa of the Salix genus living in León province. These are based on male and female catkins as well as leaf morpholog

    Zur genetischen Identifizierung der Salix bicolor EHRH. ex WILLD.-Vorkommen vom Brocken

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    Verschiedene Autoren geben die Art Salix bicolor nur als mitteleurop√§ische Form von Salix phylicifolia (Nordische Zweifarbige Weide) an. Salix bicolor unterscheidet sich jedoch durch einige Merkmale von Salix phylicifolia (LAUTENSCHLAGER 1994) wie z. B. durch ganzrandige Bl√§tter mit einigen Dr√ľsen am Blattrand, unterseits gestriegelt behaarte Erstbl√§tter (die Sommerbl√§tter zeigen auch diese Behaarung, verkahlen dann aber schneller), zahlreichere und k√ľrzere K√§tzchen und eine meist k√ľrzere gekr√ľmmte Blattspitze. Das gesch√§lte Holz hat bei Salix bicolor etwa 3-4 mm lange zerstreute Striemen (L√§ngsrippen), bei Salix phylicifolia sind es dagegen nur 1-2 mm gro√üe punktf√∂rmige W√∂lbungen. Salix phylicifolia hat ein geschlossenes Verbreitungsareal von Island √ľber Skandinavien, √ľber das n√∂rdliche Nordosteuropa bis zum Ural und das boreale Westsibirien (CHMELAR & MEUSEL 1979). Im Gegensatz dazu hat Salix bicolor nur eine punktuelle Verbreitung in den west-, mittel- und s√ľdosteurop√§ischen Gebirgen: u.a. Pyren√§en, Vogesen, Zentralalpen, Harz, Riesengebirge, Tatra, Karpaten und Balkan. Die nat√ľrlichen Standorte dieser Art sind montane Hochstaudenfluren bzw. hochmontane Blockhalden an der Baumgrenze. Im HEGI (1981) wird sie als Salicion pentandrae-Verbandscharakterart angegeben

    Molecular cytogenetic characterisation of Salix viminalis L. using repetitive DNA sequences

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    Abstract Salix viminalis L. (2n=38) is a diploid dicot species belonging to the Salix genus of the Salicaceae family. This short-rotation woody crop is one of the most important renewable bioenergy resources worldwide. In breeding for high biomass productivity, limited knowledge is available on the molecular cytogenetics of willow, which could be combined with genetic linkage mapping. The present paper describes the adaptation of a fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) protocol as a new approach to analyse the genomic constitution of Salix viminalis using the heterologous DNA clones pSc119.2, pTa71, pTa794, pAs1, Afafamily, pAl1, HT100.3, ZCF1 and the GAA microsatellite marker. Three of the nine probes showed unambiguous signals on the metaphase chromosomes. FISH analysis with the pTa71 probe detected one major 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA locus on the short arm of one chromosome pair; however, the pTa794 rDNA site was not visible. One chromosome pair showed a distinct signal around the centromeric region after FISH with the telomere-specific DNA clone HT100.3. Two chromosome pairs were found to have pAs1 FISH signals, which represent a D-genome-specific insert from Aegilops tauschii. Based on the FISH study, a set of chromosomes with characteristic patterns is presented, which could be used to establish the karyotype of willow species

    Presencia del sauce cabruno, Salix caprea L.(Salicaceae), en la provincia de Castellón.

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    Presence of goat willow, Salix caprea L. (Salicaceae), in the province of Castell√≥nPalabras clave. Salix caprea, Salicaceae, corolog√≠a, Castell√≥n, Espa√Īa.Key words. Salix caprea, Salicaceae, chorology, Castell√≥n, Spain

    Soil Ecological Processes in Vegetation Patches of Well Drained Permafrost Affected Sites (Kangerlussuaq - West Greenland)

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    Cold hardening and dehardening in Salix

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    The variation in cold hardiness in Salix in the autumn was investigated using clones of different geographic origins. In late growing season, the variation was small and inversely related to a phenotypic variation in potential growth rate. When growth had stopped in response to the reduction in daylength, however, large differences in cold hardiness developed. Northern/continental clones started cold hardening up to two months earlier and showed up to three times higher inherent rates of cold hardening than the southern/maritime ones. The two components of cold hardening, the timing of onset and the inherent rate, seemed to be separately inherited traits, as judged from analyses of the prodigy of a crossing between an early-and-rapidly hardening clone and a late-and-slowly hardening one. This suggests that cold hardiness can be improved without adversely affecting growth by selecting for a late onset of cold hardening combined with a rapid rate. Also, in the early stages, cold hardening was more sensitive to low, non-freezing temperatures in the southern/maritime clones than in the northern/continental ones. Cold hardening of stems in the autumn could be monitored from the accumulation of sugars, most predominantly sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. The accumulation of sucrose started already with the cessation of growth, whilst the accumulation of raffinose and stachyose started later and was stimulated by cool temperatures. Multivariate models using sugar data could explain 76% of the variation in cold hardiness in the early stages of hardening. Changes in levels of sugars and other compounds during cold hardening could be assessed non-intrusively from the visible and infrared reflectance spectra of stems. Multivariate models using spectral data could predict up to 96% of the variation in cold hardiness. This technique is expected to greatly facilitate breeding for improved cold hardiness by allowing rapid screening of large populations. The variation in cold hardiness in spring was also investigated. Loss of cold hardiness in spring was closely related to the bursting of buds. A relatively large genetic variation in the temperature requirement for bud burst was demonstrated indicating that this might be modified in sensitive clones to improve their cold hardiness in spring
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