33,331 research outputs found

    Solid phase behavior of mixture systems based on tripalmitoyl glycerol and monounsaturated triacylglycerols forming a molecular compound

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    Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the mixing behavior of triacylglycerol (TAG) mixtures of PPP/PPO (tripalmitoyl glycerol/1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol) and PPP/MCPOP/PPO (where MCPOP/PPO is the equimolecular blend of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol and PPO forming a molecular compound) under metastable and stable conditions. During cooling and reheating treatments at moderate rates, the eutectic properties of the two systems examined were mainly governed by the crystallization, transformation, and melting behavior of structurally similar ő≤‚Ä≤ forms. In addition, steric and kinetic effects determined the formation of solid solutions with up to 10% and 20% of mixed-acid components in PPP/PPO and PPP/MCPOP/PPO mixtures, respectively. These values increased to 30% and 35% when thermodynamically stable ő≤ crystalline phases were obtained. In PPP/MCPOP/PPO mixtures, the diffraction data suggested that POP and PPO acted as a single component by dissolving in similar amounts in the solid solution phases and forming molecular compound crystals in eutectic compositions. This fundamental research shows the important role of specific combinations of mixed-acid TAGs and their interaction with high-melting components on the solidification behavior of edible lipids

    Mushroom ő≤-glucan and polyphenol formulations as natural immunity boosters and balancers: nature of the application

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    Mushrooms are experiencing a kind of renaissance as a part of the contemporary human diet. These valuable organisms are more than food, they fi t in perfectly as a novel market group known as nutra-mycoceuticals. Immune-balancing mushroom dietary fibers and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols are the main focus of the healthcare industry. Wellness and cosmetic companies are increasingly using mushroom extracts rich in these ingredients. This review considers the basic molecular immunomodulatory mechanisms of action of the most commonly used mushroom dietary fibers, ő≤-glucans. The literature data on their bioavailability, metabolic transformations, preclinical and human clinical research, and safety are discussed. Immunomodulatory mechanisms of polyphenol ingredients are also considered. These molecules present great potential in the design of the new immunity balancer formulations according to their widespread structural diversity. Finally, we draw attention to the perspectives of modern trends in mushroom nutraceutical and cosmeceutical formulations to strengthen and balance immunity

    Grazia, ¬ętremore d‚Äôaria¬Ľ e chiaroscuro. Correggio Barockmaler nella critica di Max DvoŇô√°k

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    A peculiar case in point is that of the art of the painter Antonio Allegri da Correggio, who assumes within several Viennese writings a role of equal standing with Michelangelo and Titian in initiating a temperament that was to all intents and purposes baroque. The opportunity to assess a vocabulary of terms and concepts common to the most prominent members of the Wiener Schule is provided by reading unpublished notes from the lectures of the most ¬ęmetaphysical¬Ľ of them: Max DvoŇô√°k

    Crosstalk of Inflammatory Cytokines within the Breast Tumor Microenvironment

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    Several immune and immunocompetent cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, adipocytes, natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells, are significantly correlated with the complex discipline of oncology. Cytotoxic innate and adaptive immune cells can block tumor proliferation, and others can prevent the immune system from rejecting malignant cells and provide a favorable environment for tumor progression. These cells communicate with the microenvironment through cytokines, a chemical messenger, in an endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine manner. These cytokines play an important role in health and disease, particularly in host immune responses to infection and inflammation. They include chemokines, interleukins (ILs), adipokines, interferons, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which are produced by a wide range of cells, including immune cells, such as macrophages, B-cells, T-cells, and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, a variety of stromal cells, and some cancer cells. Cytokines play a crucial role in cancer and cancer-related inflammation, with direct and indirect effects on tumor antagonistic or tumor promoting functions. They have been extensively researched as immunostimulatory mediators to promote the generation, migration and recruitment of immune cells that contribute to an effective antitumor immune response or pro-tumor microenvironment. Thus, in many cancers such as breast cancer, cytokines including leptin, IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-23, IL-17, and IL-10 stimulate while others including IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-ő≥, inhibit cancer proliferation and/or invasion and enhance the body‚Äôs anti-tumor defense. Indeed, the multifactorial functions of cytokines in tumorigenesis will advance our understanding of cytokine crosstalk pathways in the tumor microenvironment, such as JAK/STAT, PI3K, AKT, Rac, MAPK, NF-őļB, JunB, cFos, and mTOR, which are involved in angiogenesis, cancer proliferation and metastasis. Accordingly, targeting and blocking tumor-promoting cytokines or activating and amplifying tumor-inhibiting cytokines are considered cancer-directed therapies. Here, we focus on the role of the inflammatory cytokine system in pro- and anti-tumor immune responses, discuss cytokine pathways involved in immune responses to cancer and some anti-cancer therapeutic applications

    Multiple functions and regulatory network of miR-150 in B lymphocyte-related diseases

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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that miR-150 is a crucial regulator of B cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and apoptosis. miR-150 regulates the immune homeostasis during the development of obesity and is aberrantly expressed in multiple B-cell-related malignant tumors. Additionally, the altered expression of MIR-150 is a diagnostic biomarker of various autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, exosome-derived miR-150 is considered as prognostic tool in B cell lymphoma, autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated disorders, suggesting miR-150 plays a vital role in disease onset and progression. In this review, we summarized the miR-150-dependent regulation of B cell function in B cell-related immune diseases

    Volume CXLII, Number 16, March 3, 2023

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    Perceptions of surveillance: exploring feelings held by Black community leaders in Boston toward camera enforcement of roadway infractions

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    Roadway camera enforcement programs have been found to effectively reduce vehicle travel speeds, as well as decrease the number and severity of collisions. Despite a wealth of evaluative research confirming this enforcement approach's aptitude at promoting safer roadway behavior, fewer than 50 % of US states currently host camera-based programs. Public opposition is frequently cited as the cause for the slow proliferation of this enforcement strategy. However, with public demand for police reform having an increasing presence on the national political stage, how might feelings toward camera technology currently stand among groups most marginalized by existing enforcement systems, and how might those feelings vary by type of enforcement application? Through a series of focus groups, this work centers Black voices on matters of surveillance and roadway enforcement by discussing sentiment toward camera programs with Black community leaders. This discussion is contextually situated in Boston, Massachusetts, where legislation that would allow for camera enforcement of roadway infractions is actively being deliberated in the State Senate. Findings culminate in a list of right-sizing and procedural recommendations for policy makers hoping to gain support for camera enforcement, improve roadway safety, and advance racial equity in our systems of policing and governance

    Hard magnetics in ultra-soft magnetorheological elastomers enhance fracture toughness and delay crack propagation

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    Pre-existing flaws in highly stretchable elastomers trigger fracture under large deformations. For multifunctional materials, fracture mechanics may be influenced by additional physical phenomena. This work studies the implications of hard magnetics on the fracture behaviour of ultra-soft magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). We experimentally demonstrate that MREs with remanent magnetisation have up to a 50 % higher fracture toughness than non pre-magnetised samples. Moreover, we report crack closure due to the magnetic field as a mechanism that delays the opening of cracks in pre-magnetised MREs. To overcome experimental limitations and provide further understanding, a phase-field model for the fracture of MREs is conceptualised. The numerical model incorporates magneto-mechanical coupling to demonstrate that the stress concentration at the crack tip is smaller when the MRE is pre-magnetised. Overall, this work unveils intriguing applications for functional actuators, with better fracture behaviour and potential better performance under cyclic loading

    DIAGN√ďSTICO DE PRIORIDADES COMPETITIVAS DE EMPRESAS DE BASE TECNOL√ďGICA: CONTRIBUI√á√ēES AO PROCESSO DE FORMULA√á√ēES ESTRAT√ČGICAS NO PER√ćODO DE INCUBA√á√ÉO

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    No atual contexto econ√īmico e ambiente competitivo √© fundamental a compreens√£o das prioridades competitivas de qualquer empresa, que devem estar vinculadas √† sua estrat√©gia de produ√ß√£o, agregando valor aos produtos ou servi√ßos e estabelecendo sua reputa√ß√£o no mercado. Este artigo teve por objetivo verificar quais prioridades competitivas s√£o adotadas pelos gestores no processo de desenvolvimento de empresas de base tecnol√≥gica (EBT). Por meio de um mapeamento das EBT incubadas na regi√£o de S√£o Carlos ‚Äď SP e de um levantamento tipo survey das devidas prioridades competitivas adotadas, foi poss√≠vel verificar que essas prioridades variam seu grau de relev√Ęncia de acordo com o est√°gio do processo de incuba√ß√£o. Os resultados apontaram alguns consensos, como baixo grau de relev√Ęncia para custos indiretos e alto grau para inova√ß√£o quando pr√≥ximas ao per√≠odo de entrada ou gradua√ß√£o pela incubadora. Verificou-se que, compreendendo a relev√Ęncia dessas vari√°veis, √© poss√≠vel dinamizar as atividades dos gestores, buscando mais recursos de acordo com as necessidades demandadas como capacita√ß√£o e suporte, com o intuito de obter vantagens competitivas

    Transient Radio Lines from Axion Miniclusters and Axion Stars

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    Gravitationally bound clumps of dark matter axions in the form of 'miniclusters' or even denser 'axion stars' can generate strong radio signals through axion-photon conversion when encountering highly magnetised neutron star magnetospheres. We systematically study encounters of axion clumps with neutron stars and characterise the axion infall, conversion and the subsequent propagation of the photons. We show that the high density and low escape velocity of the axion clumps lead to strong, narrow, and temporally characteristic transient radio lines with an expected duration varying from seconds to months. Our work comprises the first end-to-end modeling pipeline capable of characterizing the radio signal generated during these transient encounters, quantifying the typical brightness, anisotropy, spectral width, and temporal evolution of the radio flux. The methods developed here may prove essential in developing dedicated radio searches for transient radio lines arising from miniclusters and axion stars.Comment: v2: Minor updates made to match published version. v1: 17 pages, 15 figure
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