741 research outputs found

    Permutation Complexity via Duality between Values and Orderings

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    We study the permutation complexity of finite-state stationary stochastic processes based on a duality between values and orderings between values. First, we establish a duality between the set of all words of a fixed length and the set of all permutations of the same length. Second, on this basis, we give an elementary alternative proof of the equality between the permutation entropy rate and the entropy rate for a finite-state stationary stochastic processes first proved in [Amigo, J.M., Kennel, M. B., Kocarev, L., 2005. Physica D 210, 77-95]. Third, we show that further information on the relationship between the structure of values and the structure of orderings for finite-state stationary stochastic processes beyond the entropy rate can be obtained from the established duality. In particular, we prove that the permutation excess entropy is equal to the excess entropy, which is a measure of global correlation present in a stationary stochastic process, for finite-state stationary ergodic Markov processes.Comment: 26 page

    Segregation of receptor-ligand complexes in cell adhesion zones: Phase diagrams and role of thermal membrane roughness

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    The adhesion zone of immune cells, the 'immunological synapse', exhibits characteristic domains of receptor-ligand complexes. The domain formation is likely caused by a length difference of the receptor-ligand complexes, and has been investigated in experiments in which T cells adhere to supported membranes with anchored ligands. For supported membranes with two types of anchored ligands, MHCp and ICAM1, that bind to the receptors TCR and LFA1 in the cell membrane, the coexistence of domains of TCR-MHCp and LFA1-ICAM1 complexes in the cell adhesion zone has been observed for a wide range of ligand concentrations and affinities. For supported membranes with long and short ligands that bind to the same cell receptor CD2, in contrast, domain coexistence has been observed for a rather narrow ratio of ligand concentrations. In this article, we determine detailed phase diagrams for cells adhering to supported membranes with a statistical-physical model of cell adhesion. We find a characteristic difference between the adhesion scenarios in which two types of ligands in a supported membrane bind (i) to the same cell receptor or (ii) to two different cell receptors, which helps to explain the experimental observations. Our phase diagrams fully include thermal shape fluctuations of the cell membranes on nanometer scales, which lead to a critical point for the domain formation and to a cooperative binding of the receptors and ligands.Comment: 23 pages, 6 figure

    Screening of inbred popcorn lines for tolerance to low phosphorus.

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    Increasing phosphorus use efficiency in agriculture is essential for sustainable food production. Thus, the aims of this study were: i) to identify phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) in popcorn lines during the early plant stages, ii) to study the relationship between traits correlated with PUE, and iii) to analyze genetic diversity among lines. To accomplish this, 35 popcorn lines from Universidade Estadual de Maring谩 breeding program were studied. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber using a nutrient solution containing two concentrations of phosphorus (P): 2.5 ?M or low P (LP) and 250 ?M or high P (HP). After 13 days in the nutrient solution, root morphology traits, shoot and root dry weight, and P content of the maize seedlings were measured. A deviance analysis showed there was a high level of genetic variability. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering analysis identified three groups for the LP treatment (efficient, intermediate, and inefficient) and three groups for the HP treatment (responsive, moderately responsive, and unresponsive). The results of a principal component analysis and selection index were consistent with the UPGMA analysis, and lines 1, 2, 13, 17, 26, and 31 were classified as PUE

    Constitutive IP<sub>3</sub> signaling underlies the sensitivity of B-cell cancers to the Bcl-2/IP<sub>3</sub> receptor disruptor BIRD-2

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    Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are upregulated in different cancers, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), enabling survival by inhibiting pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca2+-signaling. A peptide tool (Bcl-2/IP3R Disruptor-2; BIRD-2) was developed to abrogate the interaction of Bcl-2 with IP3Rs by targeting Bcl-2鈥瞫 BH4 domain. BIRD-2 triggers cell death in primary CLL cells and in DLBCL cell lines. Particularly, DLBCL cells with high levels of IP3R2 were sensitive to BIRD-2. Here, we report that BIRD-2-induced cell death in DLBCL cells does not only depend on high IP3R2-expression levels, but also on constitutive IP3 signaling, downstream of the tonically active B-cell receptor. The basal Ca2+ level in SU-DHL-4 DLBCL cells was significantly elevated due to the constitutive IP3 production. This constitutive IP3 signaling fulfilled a pro-survival role, since inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) using U73122 (2.5 碌M) caused cell death in SU-DHL-4 cells. Milder inhibition of IP3 signaling using a lower U73122 concentration (1 碌M) or expression of an IP3 sponge suppressed both BIRD-2-induced Ca2+ elevation and apoptosis in SU-DHL-4 cells. Basal PLC/IP3 signaling also fulfilled a pro-survival role in other DLBCL cell lines, including Karpas 422, RI-1 and SU-DHL-6 cells, whereas PLC inhibition protected these cells against BIRD-2-evoked apoptosis. Finally, U73122 treatment also suppressed BIRD-2-induced cell death in primary CLL, both in unsupported systems and in co-cultures with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. Thus, constitutive IP3 signaling in lymphoma and leukemia cells is not only important for cancer cell survival, but also represents a vulnerability, rendering cancer cells dependent on Bcl-2 to limit IP3R activity. BIRD-2 seems to switch constitutive IP3 signaling from pro-survival into pro-death, presenting a plausible therapeutic strategy

    The Intergalactic Stellar Population from Mergers of Elliptical Galaxies with Dark Matter halos

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    We present simulations of dry-merger encounters between pairs of elliptical galaxies with dark matter halos. The aim of these simulations is to study the intergalactic stellar populations produced in both parabolic and hyperbolic encounters. We model progenitor galaxies with total-to-luminous mass ratios M_T/M_L 3 and 11. The initial mass of the colliding galaxies are chosen so that M_1/M_2 and 10. The model galaxies are populated by particles representing stars, as in Stanghellini et al. (2006), and dark matter. Merger remnants resulting from these encounters display a population of unbounded particles, both dark and luminous. The number of particles becoming unbounded depends on orbital configuration, with hyperbolic encounters producing a larger luminous intracluster population than parabolic encounters. Furthermore, in simulations with identical orbital parameters, a lower M_T/M_L of the colliding galaxies produces a larger fraction of unbounded luminous particles. For each modeled collision, the fraction of unbounded to initial stellar mass is the same in all mass-bins considered, similarly to what we found previously by modeling encounters of galaxies without dark halos. The fraction of intergalactic to total luminosity resulting from our simulations is ~ 4% and ~ 6% for dark-to-bright mass rations of 10 and 2 respectively. These unbounded-to-total luminous fractions are down from 17 % that we had previously found in the case of no dark halos. Our results are in broad agreement with intergalactic light observed in groups of galaxies, while the results of our previous models without dark halos better encompass observed intracluster populations. We suggest a possible formation scenario of intergalactic stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    On the orbital periods of the AM CVn stars HP Librae and V803 Centauri

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    We analyse high-time-resolution spectroscopy of the AM CVn stars HP Librae and V803 Centauri, taken with the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Chile. We present evidence that the literature value for V803 Cen's orbital period is incorrect, based on an observed `S-wave' in the binary's spectrogram. We measure a spectroscopic period P=1596.4+/-1.2s of the S-wave feature, which is significantly shorter than the 1611-second periods found in previous photometric studies. We conclude that the latter period likely represents a `superhump'. If one assumes that our S-wave period is the orbital period, V803 Cen's mass ratio can be expected to be much less extreme than previously thought, at q~0.07 rather than q~0.016. This relaxes the constraints on the masses of the components considerably: the donor star does then not need to be fully degenerate, and the mass of the accreting white dwarf no longer has to be very close to the Chandrasekhar limit. For HP Lib, we similarly measure a spectroscopic period P=1102.8+/-0.2s. This supports the identification of HP Lib's photometric periods found in the literature, and the constraints upon the masses derived from them.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA
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