82,355 research outputs found

    The Quantum Kuramoto Model

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    Synchronization is an ubiquitous phenomenon occurring in social, biological and technological systems when the internal rhythms of a large number of units evolve coupled. This natural tendency towards dynamical consensus has spurred a large body of theoretical and experimental research during the last decades. The Kuramoto model constitutes the most studied and paradigmatic framework to study synchronization. In particular, it shows how synchronization shows up as a phase transition from a dynamically disordered state at some critical value for the coupling strength between the interacting units. The critical properties of the synchronization transition of this model have been widely studied and many variants of its formulations has been considered to address different physical realizations. However, the Kuramoto model has been only studied within the domain of classical dynamics, thus neglecting its applications for the study of quantum synchronization phenomena. Here we provide with the quantization of the Kuramoto model. Based on a system-bath approach and within the Feynman path-integral formalism, we derive the equations for the Kuramoto model by taking into account the first quantum fluctuations. We also analyze its critical properties being the main result the derivation of the value for the synchronization onset. This critical coupling turns up to increase its value as quantumness increases, as a consequence of the possibility of tunneling that quantum fluctuations provide.Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog铆a e Innovaci贸n [CO] Colciencias1115-569-34912n

    Optimal Transmit Power and Channel-Information Bit Allocation With Zeroforcing Beamforming in MIMO-NOMA and MIMO-OMA Downlinks

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    In downlink, a base station (BS) with multiple transmit antennas applies zeroforcing beamforming to transmit to single-antenna mobile users in a cell. We propose the schemes that optimize transmit power and the number of bits for channel direction information (CDI) for all users to achieve the max-min signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) fairness. The optimal allocation can be obtained by a geometric program for both non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and orthogonal multiple access (OMA). For NOMA, 2 users with highly correlated channels are paired and share the same transmit beamforming. In some small total-CDI rate regimes, we show that NOMA can outperform OMA by as much as 3 dB. The performance gain over OMA increases when the correlation-coefficient threshold for user pairing is set higher. To reduce computational complexity, we propose to allocate transmit power and CDI rate to groups of multiple users instead of individual users. The user grouping scheme is based on K-means over the user SINR. We also propose a progressive filling scheme that performs close to the optimum, but can reduce the computation time by almost 3 orders of magnitude in some numerical examples

    An Analysis Tool for Push-Sum Based Distributed Optimization

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    The push-sum algorithm is probably the most important distributed averaging approach over directed graphs, which has been applied to various problems including distributed optimization. This paper establishes the explicit absolute probability sequence for the push-sum algorithm, and based on which, constructs quadratic Lyapunov functions for push-sum based distributed optimization algorithms. As illustrative examples, the proposed novel analysis tool can improve the convergence rates of the subgradient-push and stochastic gradient-push, two important algorithms for distributed convex optimization over unbalanced directed graphs. Specifically, the paper proves that the subgradient-push algorithm converges at a rate of O(1/t)O(1/\sqrt{t}) for general convex functions and stochastic gradient-push algorithm converges at a rate of O(1/t)O(1/t) for strongly convex functions, over time-varying unbalanced directed graphs. Both rates are respectively the same as the state-of-the-art rates of their single-agent counterparts and thus optimal, which closes the theoretical gap between the centralized and push-sum based (sub)gradient methods. The paper further proposes a heterogeneous push-sum based subgradient algorithm in which each agent can arbitrarily switch between subgradient-push and push-subgradient. The heterogeneous algorithm thus subsumes both subgradient-push and push-subgradient as special cases, and still converges to an optimal point at an optimal rate. The proposed tool can also be extended to analyze distributed weighted averaging.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2203.16623, arXiv:2303.1706

    Security and Privacy Problems in Voice Assistant Applications: A Survey

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    Voice assistant applications have become omniscient nowadays. Two models that provide the two most important functions for real-life applications (i.e., Google Home, Amazon Alexa, Siri, etc.) are Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) models and Speaker Identification (SI) models. According to recent studies, security and privacy threats have also emerged with the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT). The security issues researched include attack techniques toward machine learning models and other hardware components widely used in voice assistant applications. The privacy issues include technical-wise information stealing and policy-wise privacy breaches. The voice assistant application takes a steadily growing market share every year, but their privacy and security issues never stopped causing huge economic losses and endangering users' personal sensitive information. Thus, it is important to have a comprehensive survey to outline the categorization of the current research regarding the security and privacy problems of voice assistant applications. This paper concludes and assesses five kinds of security attacks and three types of privacy threats in the papers published in the top-tier conferences of cyber security and voice domain.Comment: 5 figure

    Concatenated Forward Error Correction with KP4 and Single Parity Check Codes

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    Concatenated forward error correction is studied using an outer KP4 Reed-Solomon code with hard-decision decoding and inner single parity check (SPC) codes with Chase/Wagner soft-decision decoding. Analytical expressions are derived for the end-to-end frame and bit error rates for transmission over additive white Gaussian noise channels with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quaternary amplitude shift keying (4-ASK), as well as with symbol interleavers and quantized channel outputs. The BPSK error rates are compared to those of two other inner codes: a two-dimensional product code with SPC component codes and an extended Hamming code. Simulation results for unit-memory inter-symbol interference channels and 4-ASK are also presented. The results show that the coding schemes achieve similar error rates, but SPC codes have the lowest complexity and permit flexible rate adaptation.Comment: Accepted for publication in IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technolog

    Towards Advantages of Parameterized Quantum Pulses

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    The advantages of quantum pulses over quantum gates have attracted increasing attention from researchers. Quantum pulses offer benefits such as flexibility, high fidelity, scalability, and real-time tuning. However, while there are established workflows and processes to evaluate the performance of quantum gates, there has been limited research on profiling parameterized pulses and providing guidance for pulse circuit design. To address this gap, our study proposes a set of design spaces for parameterized pulses, evaluating these pulses based on metrics such as expressivity, entanglement capability, and effective parameter dimension. Using these design spaces, we demonstrate the advantages of parameterized pulses over gate circuits in the aspect of duration and performance at the same time thus enabling high-performance quantum computing. Our proposed design space for parameterized pulse circuits has shown promising results in quantum chemistry benchmarks.Comment: 11 Figures, 4 Table

    Quantum Mechanics Lecture Notes. Selected Chapters

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    These are extended lecture notes of the quantum mechanics course which I am teaching in the Weizmann Institute of Science graduate physics program. They cover the topics listed below. The first four chapter are posted here. Their content is detailed on the next page. The other chapters are planned to be added in the coming months. 1. Motion in External Electromagnetic Field. Gauge Fields in Quantum Mechanics. 2. Quantum Mechanics of Electromagnetic Field 3. Photon-Matter Interactions 4. Quantization of the Schr\"odinger Field (The Second Quantization) 5. Open Systems. Density Matrix 6. Adiabatic Theory. The Berry Phase. The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation 7. Mean Field Approaches for Many Body Systems -- Fermions and Boson

    An iterative warping and clustering algorithm to estimate multiple wave-shape functions from a nonstationary oscillatory signal

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    Nonsinusoidal oscillatory signals are everywhere. In practice, the nonsinusoidal oscillatory pattern, modeled as a 1-periodic wave-shape function (WSF), might vary from cycle to cycle. When there are finite different WSFs, s1,,sKs_1,\ldots,s_K, so that the WSF jumps from one to another suddenly, the different WSFs and jumps encode useful information. We present an iterative warping and clustering algorithm to estimate s1,,sKs_1,\ldots,s_K from a nonstationary oscillatory signal with time-varying amplitude and frequency, and hence the change points of the WSFs. The algorithm is a novel combination of time-frequency analysis, singular value decomposition entropy and vector spectral clustering. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm with simulated and real signals, including the voice signal, arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram and accelerometer signal. Moreover, we provide a mathematical justification of the algorithm under the assumption that the amplitude and frequency of the signal are slowly time-varying and there are finite change points that model sudden changes from one wave-shape function to another one.Comment: 39 pages, 11 figure

    A hybrid quantum algorithm to detect conical intersections

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    Conical intersections are topologically protected crossings between the potential energy surfaces of a molecular Hamiltonian, known to play an important role in chemical processes such as photoisomerization and non-radiative relaxation. They are characterized by a non-zero Berry phase, which is a topological invariant defined on a closed path in atomic coordinate space, taking the value \pi when the path encircles the intersection manifold. In this work, we show that for real molecular Hamiltonians, the Berry phase can be obtained by tracing a local optimum of a variational ansatz along the chosen path and estimating the overlap between the initial and final state with a control-free Hadamard test. Moreover, by discretizing the path into NN points, we can use NN single Newton-Raphson steps to update our state non-variationally. Finally, since the Berry phase can only take two discrete values (0 or \pi), our procedure succeeds even for a cumulative error bounded by a constant; this allows us to bound the total sampling cost and to readily verify the success of the procedure. We demonstrate numerically the application of our algorithm on small toy models of the formaldimine molecule (\ce{H2C=NH}).Comment: 15 + 10 pages, 4 figure