139,533 research outputs found

    Robustness of entangled states that are positive under partial transposition

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    We study robustness of bipartite entangled states that are positive under partial transposition (PPT). It is shown that almost all PPT entangled states are unconditionally robust, in the sense, both inseparability and positivity are preserved under sufficiently small perturbations in its immediate neighborhood. Such unconditionally robust PPT entangled states lie inside an open PPT entangled ball. We construct examples of such balls whose radii are shown to be finite and can be explicitly calculated. This provides a lower bound on the volume of all PPT entangled states. Multipartite generalization of our constructions are also outlined.Comment: Published versio

    Effect of temperature and salinity on the hatching of eggs and larval development of sugpo, Penaeus monodon

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    Abstract only.Incubation of Penaeus monodon eggs and rearing of different larval stages were undertaken at nine temperature-salinity combinations. The eggs, nauplii, zoea and mysis from one spawner kept as stock culture at ambient temperatures of 26-30°C and salinity of 32-33 ppt were exposed to temperature levels of 23, 28 and 33°C and salinity levels of 23, 28 and 33 ppt. Eggs and nauplii survived the sudden change of temperature and salinity (from ambient to experimental) but the zoea and mysis did not. However, salinities of 23 and 28 ppt in combination with any of the temperature levels produced weak larvae. Highest mean hatching rate was obtained at the temperature-salinity combination of 23°C-33 ppt, followed by 28°C-33 ppt and 33°C-33 ppt. Incubation periods for these treatments were 22, 16 and 14 hr, respectively. Survival rate of nauplius (taken from stock cultures) to first zoeal stage was highest at 28°C-33 ppt, followed by 33°C-33 ppt and 23°C-33 ppt with molting time of 50, 45 and 75 hr, respectively. The nauplii exposed to 33°C-33 ppt molted to zoea stage within 38 to 40 hr but later died. Those exposed to 23°C-33 ppt and 28°C-33 ppt reached zoea stage within 57 to 60 hr and 48 to 50 hr, respectively. Similarly, the nauplii taken from the stock cultures and reared until postlarval stage (P1) under experimental conditions completed the zoea and mysis stages in 9 to 11 days at 28°C C-33 ppt, 7 to 9 days at 33°C-33 ppt, and 13 to 15 days at 23°C-33 ppt. Statistical analysis showed that salinity had highly significant effect on rates of hatching of eggs and survival from nauplius to first zoeal stage but not temperature although the latter had an apparent effect. However, both factors affected time of hatching of eggs and time of molting from nauplius to zoea. Interaction effect was significant only on rate and time of hatching. Different sources (spawners) of eggs and nauplii did not have significant effect on time of hatching and molting from nauplius to zoea, but significantly affected the hatching rate of eggs and survival rate of nauplii to zoea stage

    Low rank positive partial transpose states and their relation to product vectors

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    It is known that entangled mixed states that are positive under partial transposition (PPT states) must have rank at least four. In a previous paper we presented a classification of rank four entangled PPT states which we believe to be complete. In the present paper we continue our investigations of the low rank entangled PPT states. We use perturbation theory in order to construct rank five entangled PPT states close to the known rank four states, and in order to compute dimensions and study the geometry of surfaces of low rank PPT states. We exploit the close connection between low rank PPT states and product vectors. In particular, we show how to reconstruct a PPT state from a sufficient number of product vectors in its kernel. It may seem surprising that the number of product vectors needed may be smaller than the dimension of the kernel.Comment: 29 pages, 4 figure

    Local‐Regional Similarity in Drylands Increases During Multiyear Wet and Dry Periods and in Response to Extreme Events

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    Climate change is predicted to impact ecosystems through altered precipitation (PPT) regimes. In the Chihuahuan Desert, multiyear wet and dry periods and extreme PPT pulses are the most influential climatic events for vegetation. Vegetation responses are most frequently studied locally, and regional responses are often unclear. We present an approach to quantify correlation of PPT and vegetation responses (as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]) at the Jornada ARS‐LTER site (JRN; 550 km2 area) and the surrounding dryland region (from 0 to 500 km distance; 400,000 km2 study area) as a way to understand regional similarity to locally observed patterns. We focused on fluctuating wet and dry years, multiyear wet or dry periods of 3–4 yr, and multiyear wet periods that contained one or more extreme high PPT pulses or extreme low rainfall. In all but extreme high PPT years, JRN PPT was highly correlated... (See article for full abstract)

    Growing Perfect Decagonal Quasicrystals by Local Rules

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    A local growth algorithm for a decagonal quasicrystal is presented. We show that a perfect Penrose tiling (PPT) layer can be grown on a decapod tiling layer by a three dimensional (3D) local rule growth. Once a PPT layer begins to form on the upper layer, successive 2D PPT layers can be added on top resulting in a perfect decagonal quasicrystalline structure in bulk with a point defect only on the bottom surface layer. Our growth rule shows that an ideal quasicrystal structure can be constructed by a local growth algorithm in 3D, contrary to the necessity of non-local information for a 2D PPT growth.Comment: 4pages, 2figure

    PPT from spectra

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    In this contribution we solve the following problem. Let H_{nm} be a Hilbert space of dimension nm, and let A be a positive semidefinite self-adjoint linear operator on H_{nm}. Under which conditions on the spectrum has A a positive partial transpose (is PPT) with respect to any partition H_n \otimes H_m of the space H_{nm} as a tensor product of an n-dimensional and an m-dimensional Hilbert space? We show that the necessary and sufficient conditions can be expressed as a set of linear matrix inequalities on the eigenvalues of A.Comment: 6 pages, no figure