19,694 research outputs found

    Aged lipid-laden microglia display impaired responses to stroke

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    Microglial cells of the aged brain manifest signs of dysfunction that could contribute to the worse neurological outcome of stroke in the elderly. Treatment with colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor antagonists enables transient microglia depletion that is followed by microglia repopulation after treatment interruption, causing no known harm to mice. We tested whether this strategy restored microglia function and ameliorated stroke outcome in old mice. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced innate immune responses in microglia highlighted by type I interferon and metabolic changes involving lipid droplet biogenesis. Old microglia accumulated lipids under steady state and displayed exacerbated innate immune responses to stroke. Microglia repopulation in old mice reduced lipid-laden microglia, and the cells exhibited reduced inflammatory responses to ischemia. Moreover, old mice with renewed microglia showed improved motor function 2 weeks after stroke. We conclude that lipid deposits in aged microglia impair the cellular responses to ischemia and worsen functional recovery in old mice.© 2022 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license

    The Devil they Knew: Chemical Documents Analysis of Industry Influence on PFAS Science

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    Background: Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of widely-used chemicals that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in humans and animals, becoming an increasing cause for global concern. While PFAS have been commercially produced since the 1940s, their toxicity was not publicly established until the late 1990s. The objective of this paper is to evaluate industry documents on PFAS and compare them to the public health literature in order to understand this consequential delay. Methods: We reviewed a collection of previously secret industry documents archived at the UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Library, examining whether and how strategies of corporate manipulation of science were used by manufacturers of PFAS. Using well-established methods of document analysis, we developed deductive codes to assess industry influence on the conduct and publication of research. We also conducted a literature review using standard search strategies to establish when scientific information on the health effects of PFAS became public. Results: Our review of industry documents shows that companies knew PFAS was “highly toxic when inhaled and moderately toxic when ingested” by 1970, forty years before the public health community. Further, the industry used several strategies that have been shown common to tobacco, pharmaceutical and other industries to influence science and regulation – most notably, suppressing unfavorable research and distorting public discourse. We did not find evidence in this archive of funding favorable research or targeted dissemination of those results. Conclusions: The lack of transparency in industry-driven research on industrial chemicals has significant legal, political and public health consequences. Industry strategies to suppress scientific research findings or early warnings about the hazards of industrial chemicals can be analyzed and exposed, in order to guide prevention

    Consequences of HIV infection in the bone marrow niche

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    Dysregulation of the bone marrow niche resulting from the direct and indirect effects of HIV infection contributes to haematological abnormalities observed in HIV patients. The bone marrow niche is a complex, multicellular environment which functions primarily in the maintenance of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). These adult stem cells are responsible for replacing blood and immune cells over the course of a lifetime. Cells of the bone marrow niche support HSPCs and help to orchestrate the quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation of HSPCs through chemical and molecular signals and cell-cell interactions. This narrative review discusses the HIV-associated dysregulation of the bone marrow niche, as well as the susceptibility of HSPCs to infection by HIV

    Canagliflozin impairs T cell effector function via metabolic suppression in autoimmunity

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    Augmented T cell function leading to host damage in autoimmunity is supported by metabolic dysregulation, making targeting immunometabolism an attractive therapeutic avenue. Canagliflozin, a type 2 diabetes drug, is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor with known off-target effects on glutamate dehydrogenase and complex I. However, the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on human T cell function have not been extensively explored. Here, we show that canagliflozin-treated T cells are compromised in their ability to activate, proliferate, and initiate effector functions. Canagliflozin inhibits T cell receptor signaling, impacting on ERK and mTORC1 activity, concomitantly associated with reduced c-Myc. Compromised c-Myc levels were encapsulated by a failure to engage translational machinery resulting in impaired metabolic protein and solute carrier production among others. Importantly, canagliflozin-treated T cells derived from patients with autoimmune disorders impaired their effector function. Taken together, our work highlights a potential therapeutic avenue for repurposing canagliflozin as an intervention for T cell-mediated autoimmunity

    Studying the interplay between ageing and Parkinson's disease using the zebrafish model

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    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Ageing is the major risk factor for developing PD but the interplay between ageing and PD remains elusive. To investigate the effect of ageing on PD-relevant pathological mechanisms, zebrafish mutant lines harbouring mutations in ageing-associated genes (klotho-/-, sirt1-/-, satb1a-/-, satb1b-/- and satb1a-/-;satb1b-/-) were generated, using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Likewise, a chemical model for SIRT1 deficiency was utilised. klotho-/- zebrafish displayed an accelerated ageing phenotype at 3mpf and reduced survival to 6mpf. Dopaminergic neuron number, MPP+ susceptibility and microglial number were unaffected in klotho-/- larvae. NAD+ levels were decreased in 6mpf klotho-/- brains. However, ATP levels and DNA damage were unaffected. sirt1-/- zebrafish did not display a phenotype through adulthood. il-1β and il-6 were not upregulated in sirt1-/- larvae, and chemical inhibition of sirt1 did not increase microglial number. cdkn1a, il-1β and il-6 were not upregulated in satb1a-/- and satb1b-/- larvae. Dopaminergic neuron number and MPP+ susceptibility were unaffected in satb1a-/- larvae. However, satb1b-/- larvae demonstrated a moderate decrease in dopaminergic neuron number but equal susceptibility to MPP+ as satb1b+/+ larvae. Adult satb1a-/- but not adult satb1b-/- zebrafish were emaciated. satb1a-/-;satb1b-/- zebrafish did not display a phenotype through adulthood. Transgenic zebrafish expressing human wildtype α-Synuclein (Tg(eno2:hsa.SNCA-ires-EGFP)) were crossed with klotho-/- and sirt1-/- zebrafish, and treated with a sirt1-specific inhibitor. Neither genetic cross affected survival. The klotho mutation did not increase microglial number in Tg(eno2:hsa.SNCA-ires-EGFP) larvae. Likewise, sirt1 inhibition did not induce motor impairment or cell death in Tg(eno2:hsa.SNCA-ires-EGFP) larvae. In conclusion, the suitability of zebrafish for studying ageing remains elusive, as only 1 ageing-associated mutant line displayed accelerated ageing. However, zebrafish remain an effective model for studying PD-relevant pathological mechanisms due to the availability of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, neuropathological and neurobehavioral tools

    Mechanisms and applications of radiation-induced oxidative stress in regulating cancer immunotherapy

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    Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective treatment option for cancer patients, which induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes oxidative stress (OS), leading to the death of tumor cells. OS not only causes apoptosis, autophagy and ferroptosis, but also affects tumor immune response. The combination of RT and immunotherapy has revolutionized the management of various cancers. In this process, OS caused by ROS plays a critical role. Specifically, RT-induced ROS can promote the release of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), regulate the infiltration and differentiation of immune cells, manipulate the expression of immune checkpoints, and change the tumor immune microenvironment (TME). In this review, we briefly summarize several ways in which IR induces tumor cell death and discuss the interrelationship between RT-induced OS and antitumor immunity, with a focus on the interaction of ferroptosis with immunogenic death. We also summarize the potential mechanisms by which ROS regulates immune checkpoint expression, immune cells activity, and differentiation. In addition, we conclude the therapeutic opportunity improving radiotherapy in combination with immunotherapy by regulating OS, which may be beneficial for clinical treatment

    Ferroptosis: new insight into the mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy

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    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are the most serious and common diabetes-associated complications. DN and DR are all highly prevalent and dangerous global diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Ferroptosis, a relatively recently described type of cell death, has been confirmed to be involved in the occurrence and development of various diabetic complications. The disturbance of cellular iron metabolism directly triggers ferroptosis, and abnormal iron metabolism is closely related to diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ferroptosis in DN and DR is still unclear, and needs further study. In this review article, we summarize and evaluate the mechanism of ferroptosis and its role and progress in DN and DR, it provides new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of DN and DR

    Homeostasis in Immunity-Related Pupal Tissues of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae and its regulation by the NF-kappaB-like Factor Rel2

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    Die Haut ist eine oft übersehene Komponente des angeborenen Immunsystems der Mücken. Die Haut der Mücke bildet eine physische Barriere, die die mikrobielle Homöostase aufrechterhält, das Eindringen von Toxinen wie Insektiziden verhindert und das Austrocknen verhindert. Die am meisten untersuchten Akteure des Immunsystems von Stechmücken sind das Fettgewebe und die Blutzellen, aber die Hauttalg-Fabriken, die Oenozyten, werden in Studien nur selten berücksichtigt. Mückenpuppen haben aktiv funktionierende immunitätsbezogene Organe, einschließlich derjenigen, die Hautbarrieren produzieren. Ihre biologische Rolle in diesem Entwicklungsstadium ist kaum bekannt, aber der Übergang von der Puppen- zur Erwachsenenhaut und die Auffälligkeit der talgproduzierenden Zellen machen dieses Stadium zu einem vielversprechenden Entwicklungsstadium für die Untersuchung der Hautbildung. Mit Hilfe der Transkriptomanalyse beschreiben wir die Rolle der Blutzellen bei der Entwicklung des chitinösen Teils der Insektenhaut, die Beteiligung des Fettkörpers an der Immunität und bestätigen die Rolle der talgproduzierenden Zellen im Lipidstoffwechsel. Darüber hinaus beschreiben wir talgsezernierende Zellen als einen bedeutenden Wirkungsort des NF-kappaB-ähnlichen IMD-Rel2-Pathway, in dem der Transkriptionsfaktor Rel2 die Retinoid-Homöostase reguliert. Schließlich bestätigen wir eine 100 Jahre alte Beobachtung, wonach sebumsezernierende Zellen der Stechmücke ihren Zellinhalt in einem Netzwerk von Vesikeln absondern. Wir beschreiben extrazelluläres Chromatin als Fracht in diesem Vesikelnetzwerk und sein antimikrobielles Potenzial.The skin is an often overlooked component of the mosquito's innate immune system. The mosquito skin provides a physical barrier that maintains microbial homeostasis, prevents the entry of toxins like insecticides, and avoids desiccation. The most studied players in the immune system of mosquitoes are the adipose tissue and blood cells, but studies rarely consider the skin sebum factories, oenocytes. Mosquito pupae have actively functional immunity-related organs, including those producing skin barriers. Their biological roles at this developmental stage are poorly understood, but the pupae-to-adult metamorphic skin transition and the conspicuity of sebum-secreting cells make it a promising developmental stage to study skin formation. We use transcriptomics to describe the role of blood cells in the development of the chitinous section of the insect skin, the involvement of the fat body in immunity, and confirm the lipid metabolism role of sebum-secreting cells. Furthermore, we describe sebum-secreting cells as a significant action site of the NF-kappaB-like IMD-Rel2 pathway where the transcription factor Rel2 regulates retinoid homeostasis. Finally, we confirm a 100-year-old observation of how mosquito sebum-secreting cells secrete their cellular contents in a network of vesicles. We describe extracellular chromatin as cargo inside this vesicle network and its antimicrobial potential
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