14,036 research outputs found

    Melanocortins and agouti-related protein modulate the excitability of two arcuate nucleus neuron populations by alteration of resting potassium conductances

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    The hypothalamic melanocortin system is crucial for the control of appetite and body weight. Two of the five melanocortin receptors, MC3R and MC4R are involved in hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis, with the MC4R having the major influence. It is generally thought that the main impact of the melanocortin system on hypothalamic circuits is external to the arcuate nucleus, and that any effect locally in the arcuate nucleus is inhibitory on proopiomelanocortin-expressing (POMC) neurons. In contrast, using current- and voltage-clamp recordings from identified neurons, we demonstrate that MC3R and MC4R agonists depolarize arcuate POMC neurons and a separate arcuate neuronal population identified by the rat insulin 2 promoter (RIPCre) transgene expression. Furthermore, the endogenous MC3R and MC4R antagonist, agouti-related protein (AgRP), hyperpolarizes POMC and RIPCre neurons in the absence of melanocortin agonist, consistent with inverse agonism at the MC4R. A decreased transient outward (I(A)) potassium conductance, and to a lesser extent the inward rectifier (K(IR)) conductance, underlies neuronal depolarization, whereas an increase in I(A) mediates AgRP-induced hyperpolarization. Accordingly, POMC and RIPCre neurons may be targets for peptide transmitters that are possibly released locally from AgRP-expressing and POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus, adding further previously unappreciated complexity to the arcuate system

    AMPK is essential for energy homeostasis regulation and glucose sensing by POMC and AgRP neurons

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    Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to act as a key sensing mechanism, responding to hormones and nutrients in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved are unclear. The effects of long-term manipulation of hypothalamic AMPK on energy balance are also unknown. To directly address such issues, we generated POMC alpha 2KO and AgRP alpha 2KO mice lacking AMPK alpha 2 in proopiomelanocortin- (POMC-) and agouti-related protein-expressing (AgRP-expressing) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis. POMC alpha 2KO mice developed obesity due to reduced energy expenditure and dysregulated food intake but remained sensitive to leptin. in contrast, AgRPa2KO mice developed an age-dependent lean phenotype with increased sensitivity to a melanocortin agonist. Electrophysiological studies in AMPK alpha 2-deficient POMC or AgRP neurons revealed normal leptin or insulin action but absent responses to alterations in extracellular glucose levels, showing that glucose-sensing signaling mechanisms in these neurons are distinct from those pathways utilized by leptin or insulin. Taken together with the divergent phenotypes of POMC alpha 2KO and AgRP alpha 2KO mice, our findings suggest that while AMPK plays a key role in hypothalamic function, it does not act as a general sensor and integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus

    Obesity Induces Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Impairs Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Post-translational Processing

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    It was shown previously that abnormal prohormone processing or inactive proconverting enzymes that are responsible for this processing cause profound obesity. Our laboratory demonstrated earlier that in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) state, the appetite-suppressing neuropeptide -melanocyte-stimulating hormone ( -MSH) is reduced, yet the mRNA of its precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC) remained unaltered. It was also shown that the DIO condition promotes the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and leptin resistance. In the current study, using an in vivo model combined with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that obesity-induced ER stress obstructs the post-translational processing of POMC by decreasing proconverting enzyme 2, which catalyzes the conversion of adrenocorticotropin to -MSH, thereby decreasing -MSH peptide production. This novel mechanism of ER stress affecting POMC processing in DIO highlights the importance of ER stress in regulating central energy balance in obesity.Fil: Cakir, Isin. Brown University; Estados UnidosFil: Cyr, Nicole E.. Brown University; Estados UnidosFil: Perello, Mario. Brown University; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Litvinov, Bogdan Patedakis. Brown University; Estados UnidosFil: Romero, Amparo. Brown University; Estados UnidosFil: Stuart, Ronald C.. Brown University; Estados UnidosFil: Nillni, Eduardo A.. Brown University; Estados Unido

    Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice.

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    SummaryHypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons

    5-ht inhibition of rat insulin 2 promoter cre recombinase transgene and proopiomelanocortin neuron excitability in the mouse arcuate nucleus

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    A number of anti-obesity agents have been developed that enhance hypothalamic 5-HT transmission. Various studies have demonstrated that arcuate neurons, which express proopiomelanocortin peptides (POMC neurons), and neuropeptide Y with agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP) neurons, are components of the hypothalamic circuits responsible for energy homeostasis. An additional arcuate neuron population, rat insulin 2 promoter Cre recombinase transgene (RIPCre) neurons, has recently been implicated in hypothalamic melanocortin circuits involved in energy balance. It is currently unclear how 5-HT modifies neuron excitability in these local arcuate neuronal circuits. We show that 5-HT alters the excitability of the majority of mouse arcuate RIPCre neurons, by either hyperpolarization and inhibition or depolarization and excitation. RIPCre neurons sensitive to 5-HT, predominantly exhibit hyperpolarization and pharmacological studies indicate that inhibition of neuronal firing is likely to be through 5-HT1F receptors increasing current through a voltage-dependent potassium conductance. Indeed, 5-HT1F receptor immunoreactivity co-localizes with RIPCre green fluorescent protein expression. A minority population of POMC neurons also respond to 5-HT by hyperpolarization, and this appears to be mediated by the same receptor-channel mechanism. As neither POMC nor RIPCre neuronal populations display a common electrical response to 5-HT, this may indicate that sub-divisions of POMC and RIPCre neurons exist, perhaps serving different outputs

    The role of insulin receptor substrate 2 in hypothalamic and beta cell function

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    Insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) plays complex roles in energy homeostasis. We generated mice lacking Irs2 in beta cells and a population of hypothalamic neurons (RIPCreIrs2KO), in all neurons (NesCreIrs2KO), and in proopiomelanocortin neurons (POMCCreIrs2KO) to determine the role of Irs2 in the CNS and beta cell. RIPCreIrs2KO mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and reduced P cell mass. Overt diabetes did not ensue, because beta cells escaping Cre-mediated recombination progressively populated islets. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed hyperphagia, obesity, and increased body length, which suggests altered melanocortin action. POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display this phenotype. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice retained leptin sensitivity, which suggests that CNS Irs2 pathways are not required for leptin action. NesCreIrs2KO and POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display reduced beta cell mass, but NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed mild abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. RIPCre neurons did not express POMC or neuropeptide Y. Insulin and a melanocortin agonist depolarized RIPCre neurons, whereas leptin was ineffective. Insulin hyperpolarized and leptin depolarized POMC neurons. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for IRS2 in beta cell and hypothalamic function and provide insights into the role of RIPCre neurons, a distinct hypothalamic neuronal population, in growth and energy homeostasis

    The role of insulin receptor substrate 2 in hypothalamic and β cell function

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    Insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) plays complex roles in energy homeostasis. We generated mice lacking Irs2 in β cells and a population of hypothalamic neurons (RIPCreIrs2KO), in all neurons (NesCreIrs2KO), and in proopiomelanocortin neurons (POMCCreIrs2KO) to determine the role of Irs2 in the CNS and β cell. RIPCreIrs2KO mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and reduced β cell mass. Overt diabetes did not ensue, because β cells escaping Cre-mediated recombination progressively populated islets. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed hyperphagia, obesity, and increased body length, which suggests altered melanocortin action. POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display this phenotype. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice retained leptin sensitivity, which suggests that CNS Irs2 pathways are not required for leptin action. NesCreIrs2KO and POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display reduced β cell mass, but NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed mild abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. RIPCre neurons did not express POMC or neuropeptide Y. Insulin and a melanocortin agonist depolarized RIPCre neurons, whereas leptin was ineffective. Insulin hyperpolarized and leptin depolarized POMC neurons. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for IRS2 in β cell and hypothalamic function and provide insights into the role of RIPCre neurons, a distinct hypothalamic neuronal population, in growth and energy homeostasis

    Differential Changes in Expression of Stress- and Metabolic-related Neuropeptides in the Rat Hypothalamus during Morphine Dependence and Withdrawal

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    Chronic morphine treatment and naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal activates stress-related brain circuit and results in significant changes in food intake, body weight gain and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to reveal hypothalamic mechanisms underlying these effects. Adult male rats were made dependent on morphine by subcutaneous implantation of constant release drug pellets. Pair feeding revealed significantly smaller weight loss of morphine treated rats compared to placebo implanted animals whose food consumption was limited to that eaten by morphine implanted pairs. These results suggest reduced energy expenditure of morphine-treated animals. Chronic morphine exposure or pair feeding did not significantly affect hypothalamic expression of selected stress- and metabolic related neuropeptides - corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin 2 (UCN2) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) compared to placebo implanted and pair fed animals. Naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal resulted in a dramatic weight loss starting as early as 15-30 min after naloxone injection and increased adrenocorticotrophic hormone, prolactin and corticosterone plasma levels in morphine dependent rats. Using real-time quantitative PCR to monitor the time course of relative expression of neuropeptide mRNAs in the hypothalamus we found elevated CRH and UCN2 mRNA and dramatically reduced POMC expression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA levels were transiently increased during opiate withdrawal. These data highlight that morphine withdrawal differentially affects expression of stress- and metabolic-related neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus, while relative mRNA levels of these neuropeptides remain unchanged either in rats chronically treated with morphine or in their pair-fed controls
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