14,955 research outputs found

    The relationship between environmental statistics and predictive gaze behaviour during a manual interception task: Eye movements as active inference

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    This is the final version. Available from Springer via the DOI in this record. Data Availability: All relevant data and code is available online from: https://osf.io/tgx6r/.Human observers are known to frequently act like Bayes-optimal decision-makers. Growing evidence indicates that the deployment of the visual system may similarly be driven by probabilistic mental models of the environment. We tested whether eye movements during a dynamic interception task were indeed optimised according to Bayesian inference principles. Forty-one participants intercepted oncoming balls in a virtual reality racquetball task across five counterbalanced conditions in which the relative probability of the ball’s onset location was manipulated. Analysis of pre-onset gaze positions indicated that eye position tracked the true distribution of onset location, suggesting that the gaze system spontaneously adhered to environmental statistics. Eye movements did not, however, seek to minimise the distance between the target and foveal vision according to an optimal probabilistic model of the world and instead often reflected a ‘best guess’ about onset location. Trial-to-trial changes in gaze position were, however, found to be better explained by Bayesian learning models (hierarchical Gaussian filter) than associative learning models. Additionally, parameters relating to the precision of beliefs and prediction errors extracted from the participant-wise models were related to both task-evoked pupil dilations and variability in gaze positions, providing further evidence that probabilistic context was reflected in spontaneous gaze dynamics.Leverhulme Trus

    Enhanced Groundwater Protection and Management Using Gravity and Geoelectrical Data (Valls Basin, Spain)

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    The basis for the protection and prevention of groundwater pollution lies in the accurate assessment of vulnerability in terms of the exposure of groundwater bodies to contaminants before they are potentially discharged into the environment. The vulnerability assessment consists of calculating the ease with which pollutants can reach the aquifer from the surface through the vadose zone, which effectively reduces the pollutant load when the transit time is long. Index methods are mostly used, as they are based on input data that are readily available, easy to implement and interpret, and which are simple and practical. However, there are also limitations, as some methods are somewhat subjective and provide only a qualitative approximation. This case study aims to develop a methodology that can quantitively estimate the hydrogeological parameters of the aquifer formations of the Valls basin using geophysical methods and the Dar Zarrouk parameters. The specific treatment carried out on data from gravity stations and vertical electric soundings, supported by the available well data, allows for the delineation of the most favourable areas for the exploitation of groundwater resources (higher hydraulic transmissivity) and the areas most susceptible to pollution (with a shorter transit time) on a regional scale. Geophysical methods have proved useful, sustainably providing valuable information without the need to drill new boreholes that could act as preferential pathways for pollutants into the aquifer

    Characterising the behaviours in most severe and least severe emotional outbursts in young people

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    Emotional outbursts are displays of intense, challenging behaviour and are prevalent in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. Outbursts present a danger to individuals and their carers and are cited as reasons for referral to mental health services. However, it is currently unclear how the characteristics of outbursts may determine their severity. Carers (n = 214) of individuals aged between 6 and 25 and experiencing outbursts at least once per month completed the Emotional Outburst Questionnaire. Questionnaire items were used to compare behaviours observed in most severe and least severe outbursts through quantitative and content analyses of open ended data. Signs of physiological arousal and aggression were seen significantly more in most severe outbursts compared to least severe outbursts. Least severe outbursts were seen more frequently, but most severe outbursts were reported to have a longer duration, be at a higher intensity, and have a longer recovery time. Additionally, associations were found between reduced eye contact and most severe outbursts, as well as expression of suicidal ideation and most severe outbursts. Certain behaviours, notably forms of aggression and physiological arousal, are associated with most severe outbursts. Findings of this study may allow future work examining cross-disorder differences in outbursts to inform targeted interventions aiming to reduce outburst severity and impact. Additionally, identification of such outburst characteristics could aid in measurement of outburst severity, which would allow for more reliable and valid studies on outburst interventions

    Profili di Poesia latina tardoantica.

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    Nel tracciare, anche attraverso i dettagli di singole opere, i profili di alcuni dei protagonisti della poesia latina tra la crisi dell’Impero romano d’Occidente e la definitiva affermazione dei cosiddetti regni romano-barbarici (Optaziano Porfirio, Rutilio Namaziano, Sidonio Apollinare, Draconzio, Massimiano e Corippo), il volume si propone di mettere in luce le reciproche interazioni tra le nuove configurazioni della società dei secoli IV-VI d.C. e la fiorente produzione letteraria del periodo: ne emerge un quadro di straordinaria vivacità che intende aiutare il lettore a meglio focalizzare alcuni elementi caratterizzanti l’espressione poetica di un’epoca complessa e ricca di contraddizioni

    A persistĂȘncia da visĂŁo: Paulo EmĂ­lio Salles Gomes e o Modernismo (1964-1977

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    Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar determinadas formas de prolongamento do Modernismo em São Paulo. Mais especificamente, trata-se de observar a manifestação desse movimento na trajetória do crítico de cinema Paulo Emílio Salles Gomes entre os anos 1960 e 1970. Situado numa posição singular ante o Modernismo, o crítico articulou, ao longo de sua trajetória, diversas maneiras de lidar com o movimento. Por um lado, é possível aferir o prolongamento do tema nas formulaçÔes do crítico sobre a figura de Oswald de Andrade, de quem foi próximo desde os anos 1930. Por outro lado, uma reflexão mais abrangente sobre o Modernismo se cristaliza no início dos anos 1970, num documento em que Paulo Emílio reflete sobre a Semana de 22. Por meio dessas duas perspectivas, espera-se refletir sobre o sentido da atualização do Modernismo no contexto turbulento que se seguiu ao Golpe de 1964

    No influence of threat uncertainty on fear generalization

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    Fear overgeneralization and perceived uncertainty about future outcomes have been suggested as risk factors for clinical anxiety. However, little is known regarding how they influence each other. In this study, we investigated whether different levels of threat uncertainty influence fear generalization. Three groups of healthy participants underwent a differential fear conditioning protocol followed by a generalization test. All groups learned to associate one female face (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a female scream (unconditioned stimulus, US), whereas the other face (CS−) was not associated with the scream. In order to manipulate threat uncertainty, one group (low uncertainty, n = 26) received 80%, the second group (moderate uncertainty, n = 32) received 60%, and the third group (high uncertainty, n = 30) 40% CS-US contingency. In the generalization test, all groups saw CS+ and CS− again along with four morphs resembling the CSs in steps of 20%. Subjective (expectancy, valence, and arousal ratings), psychophysiological (skin conductance response, SCR), and visuocortical (steady-state visual evoked potentials, ssVEPs) indices of fear were registered. Participants expected the US according to their reinforcement schedules and the discriminative responses to CS+/CS− increased with more uncertainty in skin conductance. However, acquisition of conditioned fear was not evident in ssVEPs. During the generalization test, we found no effect of threat uncertainty in any of the measured variables, but the strength of generalization for threat expectancy ratings was positively correlated with dispositional intolerance of uncertainty. This study suggests that mere threat uncertainty does not modulate fear generalization.</p

    Perception of near‐threshold visual stimuli is influenced by prestimulus alpha‐band amplitude but not by alpha phase

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    Ongoing brain activity preceding visual stimulation has been suggested to shape conscious perception. According to the pulsed inhibition framework, bouts of functional inhibition arise in each alpha cycle (every ~100 ms), allowing information to be processed in a pulsatile manner. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that perceptual outcome can be influenced by the specific phase of alpha oscillations prior to the stimulus onset, although empirical findings are controversial. In this study, we aimed to shed light on the role of prestimulus alpha oscillations in visual perception. To this end, we recorded electroencephalographic activity, while participants performed three near‐threshold visual detection tasks with different attentional involvement: a no‐cue task, a noninformative cue task (50% validity), and an informative cue task (100% validity). Cluster‐based permutation statistics were complemented with Bayesian analyses to test the effect of prestimulus oscillatory amplitude and phase on visual awareness. We additionally examined whether these effects differed in trials with low and high oscillatory amplitude, as expected from the pulsed inhibition theory. Our results show a clear effect of prestimulus alpha amplitude on conscious perception, but only when alpha fluctuated spontaneously. In contrast, we did not find any evidence that prestimulus alpha phase influenced perceptual outcome, not even when differentiating between low‐ and high‐amplitude trials. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis provided moderate evidence in favor of the absence of phase effects. Taken together, our results challenge the central theoretical predictions of the pulsed inhibition framework, at least for the particular experimental conditions used here

    Identification of genes with oscillatory expression in glioblastoma: the paradigm of SOX2

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    Quiescence, a reversible state of cell-cycle arrest, is an important state during both normal development and cancer progression. For example, in glioblastoma (GBM) quiescent glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) play an important role in re-establishing the tumour, leading to relapse. While most studies have focused on identifying differentially expressed genes between proliferative and quiescent cells as potential drivers of this transition, recent studies have shown the importance of protein oscillations in controlling the exit from quiescence of neural stem cells. Here, we have undertaken a genome-wide bioinformatic inference approach to identify genes whose expression oscillates and which may be good candidates for controlling the transition to and from the quiescent cell state in GBM. Our analysis identified, among others, a list of important transcription regulators as potential oscillators, including the stemness gene SOX2, which we verified to oscillate in quiescent GSCs. These findings expand on the way we think about gene regulation and introduce new candidate genes as key regulators of quiescence

    Cortical thickness modeling and variability in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia

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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) show different patterns of cortical thickness (CTh) loss compared with healthy controls (HC), even though there is relevant heterogeneity between individuals suffering from each of these diseases. Thus, we developed CTh models to study individual variability in AD, FTD, and HC.We used the baseline CTh measures of 379 participants obtained from the structural MRI processed with FreeSurfer. A total of 169 AD patients (63 ± 9 years, 65 men), 88 FTD patients (64 ± 9 years, 43 men), and 122 HC (62 ± 10 years, 47 men) were studied. We fitted region-wise temporal models of CTh using Support Vector Regression. Then, we studied associations of individual deviations from the model with cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL) and 14-3-3 protein and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Furthermore, we used real longitudinal data from 144 participants to test model predictivity.We defined CTh spatiotemporal models for each group with a reliable fit. Individual deviation correlated with MMSE for AD and with NfL for FTD. AD patients with higher deviations from the trend presented higher MMSE values. In FTD, lower NfL levels were associated with higher deviations from the CTh prediction. For AD and HC, we could predict longitudinal visits with the presented model trained with baseline data. For FTD, the longitudinal visits had more variability.We highlight the value of CTh models for studying AD and FTD longitudinal changes and variability and their relationships with cognitive features and biomarkers.© 2023. The Author(s)