63,112 research outputs found

    "Painting with faces": The casting director in American theatre, cinema, and television

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    In Casting By (2012), HBO‚Äôs documentary on the casting director, Martin Scorsese praises his close working relationship with his casting director. ‚ÄúMore than 90% of directing‚ÄĚ he asserts, ‚Äúis the right casting.‚ÄĚ Taking as its starting point that the casting director is, as Scorsese‚Äôs enthusiasm reveals, a vital but often unrecognized part of the production team, ‚Äú‚ÄėPainting with Faces‚Äô: The Casting Director in American Theatre, Cinema, and Television‚ÄĚ offers the first extended scholarly analysis of the profession. This comparative history broadens the concept of what constitutes a decision-maker in three major culture industries by arguing that casting directors, often devalued as feminized clerical labor, exercise more control over the creative and economic aspects of production than we usually acknowledge. Chapter one, ‚ÄúThe Pre-Professional Casting Director,‚ÄĚ offers a pre-history of the theatrical casting processes to explain how and why the professions of casting director and talent scout emerged in the twentieth century. Examining how casting operated throughout different epochs and in diverse production practices (particularly the medieval cycle plays, the English early modern theatres, and the American stock companies), I contend that those who took on the functions of proto-casting director were, contrary to today‚Äôs perception of the casting director as ‚Äúbelow-the-line‚ÄĚ labor, usually the production‚Äôs most important creative personnel. Turning to the twentieth century, chapter two, ‚ÄúThe Company Casting Director,‚ÄĚ argues that in-house casting employees working during the golden age of Broadway, classical Hollywood, and early television eras exerted more creative influence within their respective companies than industrial scholarship allows. Seen as what one film historian calls ‚Äúlow-level decision-makers,‚ÄĚ casting directors rarely figure in industry studies because these analyses typically focus on directors or producers. Archival documents such as memoirs, memos, and casting idea lists indicate, however, that casting personnel were not simply clerical workers, but, rather, by contributing to hiring decisions, among those who helped shape their respective companies‚Äô aesthetic vision. My project‚Äôs third chapter, ‚ÄúThe Independent Casting Director,‚ÄĚ brings women into the historical record by explaining the rise of the female casting director and the concomitant gendering of the profession. The chapter‚Äôs first half argues that examining the major entertainment industries concurrently reveals that media scholars have profoundly misunderstood the rise of female labor in entertainment occupations such as casting. By focusing on Los Angeles and the classical Hollywood studio system, critics ignored the more permeable divisions of labor that existed in New York-based theatre and early television. The looser organizational structure of these two industries allowed women to pursue entertainment careers and produce culture on the east coast in ways they could not on the west. Also concentrating on gender, the latter half of this chapter contends that the disproportionate number of women who entered casting in the 1960s-70s led scholars, journalists, and industry professionals to devalue the profession by associating it with stereotypically feminine traits. Arlie Russell Hochschild‚Äôs theories of ‚Äúemotional labor‚ÄĚ and Vicki Mayer‚Äôs media scholarship on ‚Äúnurturing,‚ÄĚ accommodating feminized workers apply to common observations about casting directors. Whether or not casting is a service profession, certainly casting directors (male and female) perceive it as such and often use feminized language to describe what they do. Yet casting requires skills typically seen as masculine, which many industry studies theorists argue the role of decision-maker demands. For example, with production funding increasingly scarce in today‚Äôs weak economic climate, casting directors often serve as de facto producers by attaching talent to theatre and film projects to secure the necessary financing. The funding for the Oscar-winning Crash (Haggis, 2004) was cast-contingent, and that movie‚Äôs casting directors, Sarah Halley Finn and Randi Hiller, received credit for getting the film made. Chapter four, ‚ÄúThe Digital-Age Casting Director,‚ÄĚ explores the digital revolution‚Äôs impact on today‚Äôs casting practices. As I trace casting offices‚Äô increased use of digital media to locate and audition actors, I argue that digital devices give casting directors more control over the decision-making process. Digital cameras and video-sharing websites, for example, allow casting directors to edit most auditions and regulate the content upon which many hiring decisions are now based. My work on casting culminates by examining the digital era‚Äôs implications for casting‚Äôs future. I contend that even those digital special effects such as vactors that could potentially limit the casting director‚Äôs creative input are unlikely to do so as most CG-manipulated characters are still modeled on live performers.U of I OnlyU of I Only Extension request made by author via Graduate Colleg

    Fuentes externas de informaci√≥n para el desarrollo de innovaciones: un an√°lisis de la evidencia en Europa y Espa√Īa

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    p. 181-238La creciente complejidad y dinamismo que caracterizan los entornos actuales han obligado a las empresas a complementar su base interna de conocimientos con otros procedentes del exterior. As√≠, entre las diversas alternativas existentes, la cooperaci√≥n con clientes y usuarios en materia de innovaci√≥n se perfila como una de las m√°s importantes fuentes de ideas innovadoras. Por este motivo, el presente trabajo profundiza en el an√°lisis de distintas fuentes de informaci√≥n utilizadas por empresas europeas y espa√Īolas para el desarrollo de innovaciones, resaltando la importancia de las aportaciones realizadas por estos agentes. La investigaci√≥n se completa con un estudio emp√≠rico en el que se compara la influencia de cuatro tipos de cooperaci√≥n (con clientes, proveedores, universidades y expertos/ firmas consultoras) sobre la intensidad de la actividad innovadora en un conjunto de veinte sectores productivos espa√Īoles. De √©l se desprende que la colaboraci√≥n con clientes para el desarrollo de innovaciones incide significativamente sobre dicha intensidad y que es un buen indicador de la importancia que la organizaci√≥n otorga a estas actividades.S

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005‚Äď2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Efectividad de la pol√≠tica de cooperaci√≥n en innovaci√≥n: evidencia emp√≠rica espa√Īola

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    pp. 3-29En este trabajo se han desarrollado distintos modelos econom√©tricos a partir de datos de empresas innovadoras para determinar si las ayudas p√ļblicas a la innovaci√≥n provenientes de la Administraci√≥n Central, las Comunidades Aut√≥nomas y otros organismos (b√°sicamente ayudas europeas) influyen sobre la propensi√≥n o probabilidad de las empresas innovadoras a establecer acuerdos de colaboraci√≥n tecnol√≥gica. Se analizan distintas formas de cooperaci√≥n (vertical, horizontal o institucional). Los resultados globales indican que las ayudas p√ļblicas tienen un efecto sobre la probabilidad cooperadora de las empresas respecto a la cooperaci√≥n en general. Este efecto inductor se confirma para la cooperaci√≥n privada-publica (o institucional) y para la cooperaci√≥n horizontal, es decir, entre empresas competidoras. Las ayudas no reflejan un efecto sobre la cooperaci√≥n entre clientes y proveedores (cooperaci√≥n vertical).S

    Introduction to Special Issue ‚ÄúAdvances in Sustainability-Oriented Innovations‚ÄĚ

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    8836This Special Issue focuses on the study of Sustainability-Oriented Innovations (SOIs). Our purpose is to shed light on the SOIs literature regarding their determining factors, implications and new challenges for the future. In this editorial, we are delighted to present the three papers included in this Special Issue. Each of them tackles di erent issues related to SOIs having important academic and managerial implications. Two papers analyze the influence of SOIs on urban development and resource productivity, respectively, and the third studies SOIs determinants, in particular, cooperation networks. Moreover, two of the papers analyze SOIs considering territory (cities or countries) as their unit of analysis while the third focuses on firms. This denotes that SOIs’ actions are important whatever the level of analysis and as either a determinant or a consequence.S

    Calidad percibida del servicio en la cadena de aprovisionamiento en la industria turística

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    Este trabajo contribuye a relacionar las √°reas de la gesti√≥n de la calidad del servicio y la gesti√≥n de la cadena de aprovisionamiento. M√°s concretamente, permite comprender mejor c√≥mo la gesti√≥n de la calidad del servicio puede ayudar a describir, explicar y predecir los resultados en la cadena de aprovisionamiento. Se analizan qu√© factores son importantes considerar en la calidad percibida del servicio de la cadena de aprovisionamiento y c√≥mo influyen √©stos en la futura relaci√≥n comprador-proveedor. Para ello, se desarrolla y verifica un modelo incorporando constructos tales como desempe√Īo del servicio, calidad del servicio percibida, satisfacci√≥n y lealtad. La literatura aporta trabajos de estos constructor en la relaci√≥n empresa-cliente final y comprador-vendedor en empresas manufactureras, pero existe una laguna en la relaci√≥n entre miembros de de la cadena de aprovisionamiento en empresas de servicios. Por ello, el modelo fue verificado con 908 evaluaciones que realizaron los gerentes de establecimientos hoteleros sobre la calidad percibida del servicio del proveedor. El an√°lisis de los datos soporta el modelo conceptual donde la satisfacci√≥n y la lealtad de los gerentes de los hoteles al proveedor est√° muy influenciada por la calidad del servicio que recibe de √©ste

    Relaciones sociales y creatividad en la empresa: la importancia de la calidad de las interacciones del empleado con su entorno m√°s cercano

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    pp. 1-16La creatividad se está convirtiendo en un fenómeno de especial importancia para las organizaciones. Por ello, existe un interés creciente por comprender cuáles son los factores responsables del rendimiento creativo en los entornos laborales. A pesar de ello, todavía existen lagunas importantes en la literatura sobre la influencia del liderazgo y del comportamiento de los grupos en la creatividad. Con el fin de aportar nueva evidencia empírica al respecto, el objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en analizar cómo influyen las relaciones de intercambio que mantiene el empleado con su superior inmediato y con su grupo de trabajo en la creatividad que pone de manifiesto.S

    Women’s Experiences of Accessing Breastfeeding and Perinatal Health Support in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: An Interpretive Description Study

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    Background: Women experiencing intimate partner violence are at a heightened risk of negative perinatal and breastfeeding outcomes. This study explored the experiences of accessing breastfeeding support for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. A study of five in-depth semi-structured interviews were completed at 12-weeks postpartum with breastfeeding mothers with a history of intimate partner violence. Findings: Women expressed difficulties in accessing a healthcare provider who had specialized skill in breastfeeding support. Trust in their healthcare provider, built through displays of compassion and competence, was important to mitigate obstacles experienced during care access for this population. Trauma-and-violence-informed care principles were beneficial to the development of the therapeutic relationship in perinatal care. Women placed value on breastfeeding support received from both healthcare providers and social supports, which impacted mothers’ perceived breastfeeding support and self-efficacy. Further, mothers described increased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy after engaging in a trauma-and-violence-informed care program aimed at supporting breastfeeding. Conclusions: Trauma-informed care may aid in the development of trust in the therapeutic relationship, which in turn impacts access to breastfeeding support and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The inclusion of trauma-and-violence informed principles in perinatal care may be effective at mitigating barriers to access for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. health care on how to employ trauma-informed breastfeeding care to may lead to better support for this population

    Paradoxes in the Management of Timebanks in the UK’s Voluntary Sector: Discursive Bricolage and its Limits

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    This paper contributes to our understanding of volunteer management by charting some important challenges associated with the governance of one of the UK‚Äôs largest timebanking networks. While timebanking is often treated as a form of volunteering, many timebank advocates are keen to distinguish it sharply from traditional volunteering. We suggest that this tension generates a fundamental ‚Äėperformance paradox‚Äô in the management of timebanks in the voluntary sector. We draw on political discourse theory to characterise and evaluate associated challenges, suggesting that, when viewed against a host of context-specific organisational and policy pressures, the progressive potential of timebanking cannot be realised as a distinct community economy without adequate support. Instead of taking up a position alongside more traditional forms of volunteering, timebanking is more likely to be subsumed by them

    Management competencies for health and wellbeing

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    A growing body of research demonstrates the impact of management behavior on a range of individual and organizational health and wellbeing outcomes; however, efforts to train and develop managers often fall short. This chapter focuses on research to identify competencies‚Äďor the collection of skills, abilities, and knowledge‚Äďrequired by managers to promote, protect, maintain, and support the health and wellbeing of employees. A number of specific competency frameworks are presented: for preventing and reducing work stress, enhancing engagement, managing remote workers, and supporting return to work following sickness absence. Research examining the development of management competencies is shared and the implications of new approaches to management such as compassionate leadership and mindfulness are considered. Finally, learnings from interventions to develop management competencies for health and wellbeing are discussed. This chapter aims to provide practical insights into how we can develop managers so that they can better support their teams. We argue that if we are to equip managers to manage the health and wellbeing of others, we must not only raise awareness of health and wellbeing but also support the development of the key skills, ability, and knowledge to take action. In doing so, managing health and wellbeing is not a separate activity on top of managing performance but rather becomes an integral part of the management practices. Book synopsis: This handbook focuses on the contribution of management and employment practices to the health and wellbeing of workers. It provides readers with a comprehensive oversight of the latest research and thinking on these issues, with content provided by leading researchers in each of the fields covered. This reference work is divided into six sections that cover leadership, change management, human resource management practices, managing disabilities, work-life interfaces, and emerging challenges. The topics covered represent an interdisciplinary perspective, integrating psychology, social sciences, biomedical sciences, economics, employment relations and management. Through a spectrum of chapters this volume provides the best available scientific evidence to professionals and stakeholders on the interplay between management practices, health and wellbeing
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