45,083 research outputs found

    Solid Waste Disposal and Ocean Dumping

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    A broad-scope overview of the solid waste disposal problem as intensified by legislation against ocean dumping of such wastes. Since the problem of increasing ocean pollution was partly solved by extensive restrictions on ocean dumping, wastes formerly disposed of in the oceans must now be disposed of by other methods. These alternative methods are discussed and cost estimates applied insofar as feasible; effects on the environment and on the conservation of natural resources are also discussed. Efforts should be directed to determine the level of solid waste disposal which would result in beneficial effects, or at the worst, in non-harmful effects on the marine environment. The entire solid waste management problem must be considered as an entity with ocean and land disposal options, capabilities, limitations, and costs carefully evaluated to provide the optimum results to both man and the environment

    Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites

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    The author has identified the following significant results. Acid waste plume was observed in LANDSAT imagery fourteen times ranging from during dump up to 54 hours after dump. Circulation processes at the waste disposal site are highly storm-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasterlies. There is a mean flow to the south along shore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months (May through October), the ocean at the dump site stratifies with a distinct thermocline observed during all summer cruising at depths ranging from 10 to 21 m. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom currents were small. Surface currents responded to wind conditions resulting in rapid movement of surface drogues on windy days. Mid-depth drogues showed an intermediate behavior, moving more rapidly as wind velocities increased

    LANDSAT observations of ocean dump plume movement and dispersion

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    The author has identified the following significant results. Eighteen LANDSAT images were analyzed to study the dispersion and movement of ocean dump plumes thirty-eight miles southeast of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, at the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant producing titanium dioxide. Long visual persistence was explained by the formation of a suspended ferric floc. Spectrometric measurements indicate that upon combining with sea water the acid waste develops a strong reflectance peak in the band 0.55 to 0.60 micron region, resulting in a stronger contrast in the MSS band 4 than the other bands. Predominant direction of movement of the waste plumes was to the southeast. Average drift velocity for surface drogues and the waste plumes was about 0.5 knots. The water at the test site was highly stratified and stable in the summer and nearly homogenous in the winter

    Detection of ocean waste in the New York Bight

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    The application of remote sensing to detection and monitoring of ocean waste disposal in the New York Bight is discussed. Attention is focused on the two major pollutants in this area--sewage sludge and iron-acid waste--and on detecting and identifying these pollutants. The emphasis is on the use of LANDSAT multispectral data in identifying these pollutants and distinguishing them from other substances. The analysis technique applied to the LANDSAT data is the eigenvector. This approach proved to be quite successful in detecting iron-acid waste of the coast of Delaware and is applied here with relatively minor modifications. The results of the New York Bight work are compared to the Delaware results. Finally, other remote sensing systems (Nimbus G, aircraft photography and multispectral scanner systems) are discussed as possible complements of or replacements for the Landsat observations
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