121,023 research outputs found

    Brady Statute Data: Persons Who Are Illegally or Unlawfully in the United States

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    Currently, Alaska law enforcement agencies do not obtain data on four noncriminal categories prohibited by the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993 from obtaining firearms. This, the fourth of four reports on these categories, describes how undocumented immigrants who are unlawfully in the United States can be identified within an Alaska context and discusses possible procedures, problems, and solutions associated with data collection. It was found that the most feasibile means for obtaining information for the purposes of Brady background checks would be the Verification Information System (VIS) of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). However, project researchers received no response from INS to inquiries about requirements of access to VIS.Bureau of Justice Statistics, United States Department of Justice. Grant No. 96-RU-RX-K026.Introduction / Background / Definitions / INS Records Availability / Determining an Individual's Classification for Brady / Verification Process / Conclusion / Appendix A: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Guide to Commonly Used Documents Used to Identify Persons Eligible for Benefits Under the Immigration and Naturalization Act / Appendix B: U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Statement of Intent to Obtain a Handgun(s

    Does citizenship matter? The economic impact of naturalizations in Germany

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    The paper analyzes whether citizenship acquisition affects the labor market performance of immigrants in Germany. The study uses actual micro data from the IAB employment sample, which covers more than 80% of the whole labor force in Germany. The econometric analysis is carried out using both cross-sectional and panel data techniques, which allow to disentangle the effects of self-selection and legal impact of citizenship acquisition. The estimates from a simple OLS specification suggest the existence of a wage premium of naturalized immigrants. Panel estimates show an immediate positive naturalization effect on wages and an accelerated wage growth in the years after the naturalization event. Both results are consistent with the argument that naturalization increases the labor market opportunities of immigrants in various ways.Naturalization, self-selection, socioeconomic integration

    Geographical, socioeconomic, and ecological determinants of exotic plant naturalization in the United States : insights and updates from improved data

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    Previous studies on alien species establishment in the United States and around the world have drastically improved our understanding of the patterns of species naturalization, biological invasions, and underlying mechanisms. Meanwhile, relevant new data have been added and the data quality has significantly increased along with the consistency of related concepts and terminology that are being developed. Here using new and/or improved data on the native and exotic plant richness and many socioeconomic and physical variables at the state level in the United States, we attempt to test whether previously discovered patterns still hold, particularly how native and exotic species are related and what are the dominant factors controlling the plant naturalization. We found that, while the number of native species is largely controlled by natural factors such as area and temperature, exotic species and exotic fraction are predominantly influenced by social factors such as human population. When domestically introduced species were included, several aspects in earlier findings were somewhat altered and additional insights regarding the mechanisms of naturalization could be achieved. With increased data availability, however, a greater challenge ahead appears to be how many and which variables to include in analyses

    Casting the naturalization of asylum seekers as an economic problem

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    The asylum seekers who choose the level of investment in the host-country-specific human capital, and the government of the host country that chooses the probability of naturalization are modeled as optimizing economic agents in a setting not of their choosing.The probability of naturalization; Investment in host-country-specific human capital; Economic behavior of asylum seekers; Economic behavior of the government of the host country; Stackelberg game

    Who Can Become German?: Xenophobia and Attitudes Towards Naturalization

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    Germans are opening up to the topic of immigration: According to the representative data of this report, less and less Germans without a migration background feel threatened by immigration. Also, their attitude towards naturalization has changed. The question "What is the decisive factor for granting German nationality?" is now answered differently than in the 1990s. A significant part of the population without migration background considers ethnic German descent as less important. More and more Germans, however, believe that individual behavior should be the decisive factor for naturalization. In contrast, this doesn't necessarily imply a decline of xenophobia: Persons placing high importance on behavior and cultural adaptation have equally frequent xenophobic tendencies as persons considering ethnicity to be more important. Still, the number of Germans feeling strong hostility towards strangers went down at large.immigration, xenophobia, naturalization

    Prescreening and Red Flag Review: A toolkit in the Group Processing Workshop Series

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    The New Americans Campaign provides a significant percentage of naturalization services through group processing workshops -- events serving 10-600+ lawful permanent residents (LPRs) within a single day. This group approach is critical to the Campaign's goal of significantly increasing the number of LPRs who complete their naturalization applications. It also serves as a foundation for other immigration service delivery, including future opportunities arising out of Comprehensive Immigration Reform. This toolkit provides recommendations for organizations on how to screen LPRs before a workshop for their eligibility to naturalize, as well as how to review the suitability of their case for assistance in a workshop setting

    DETERMINATIONS OF NATURALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON EARNINGS

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    Many studies about the effects of naturalization on earnings do not account for the endogenous characteristic of naturalization. This study is concerned with the determinants of naturalization, its effect on earnings, and reversal causality between earnings and naturalization. Ordinary least squares (OLS), treatment effect model, and simultaneous equation model are used to estimate the effect of naturalization on earnings for U.S. immigrants. Using a treatment effect model, we find that naturalization has a much higher positive impact than the OLS method on earnings, but by employing a simultaneous equation model, the naturalization premium becomes closer to that of OLS. Also, we find that correcting the simultaneity problem between earnings and naturalization is much more important than orthogonalizing the naturalization variable using instruments

    Catalyst or crown: does naturalization promote the long-term social integration of immigrants?

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    We study the impact of naturalization on the long-term social integration of immigrants into the host country society. Despite ongoing debates about citizenship policy, we lack reliable evidence that isolates the causal effect of naturalization from the non-random selection into naturalization. We exploit the quasi-random assignment of citizenship in Swiss municipalities that used referendums to decide on naturalization applications of immigrants. Comparing otherwise similar immigrants who narrowly won or narrowly lost their naturalization referendums, we find that receiving Swiss citizenship strongly improved long-term social integration. We also find that the integration returns to naturalization are much larger for more marginalized immigrant groups and somewhat larger when naturalization occurs earlier, rather than later in the residency period. Overall, our findings support the policy paradigm arguing that naturalization is a catalyst for improving the social integration of immigrants rather than merely the crown on the completed integration process

    Building Capacity for ESL, Legal Services, and Citizenship

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    Provides a funders' guide to opportunities, strategies, and resources for promoting immigrants' civic integration by investing in a local infrastructure of services, including English instruction, legal services, and assistance with naturalization

    Naturalization Proclivities, Ethnicity and Integration

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    This paper studies the determinants of naturalization among Turkish and ex-Yugoslav immigrants in Germany differentiating between actual and planned citizenship. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel, we measure the impact that integration and ethnicity indicators exert on the probability to naturalize beyond the standard individual and human capital characteristics. A robust finding is that German citizenship is very valuable to female immigrants and the generally better educated, but not to those educated in Germany. We find that the degree of integration in German society has a differential effect on citizenship acquisition. While a longer residence in Germany has a negative influence on actual or future naturalization, arriving at a younger age and having close German friends are strong indicators of a positive proclivity to citizenship acquisition. Likewise, ethnic origins and religion also influence these decisions. Muslim immigrants in Germany are more willing to become German citizens than non-Muslim immigrants, but there are also fewer German citizens among Muslims than among non-Muslims.Citizenship, naturalization, ethnicity, integration
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