12,230 research outputs found

    Coated cysteamine, a potential feed additive for ruminants — An updated review

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    For sustainable development, better performance, and less gas pollution during rumen fermentation, there is a need to find a green and safe feed additive for ruminants. Cysteamine (CS) is a biological compound naturally produced in mammalian cells. It is widely used as a growth promoter in ruminants because of its ability to control hormone secretions. It mainly controls the circulating concentration of somatostatin and enhances growth hormone production, leading to improved growth performance. CS modulates the rumen fermentation process in a way beneficial for the animals and environment, leading to less methane production and nutrients loss. Another beneficial effect of using CS is that it improves the availability of nutrients to the animals and enhances their absorption. CS also works as an antioxidant and protects the cells from oxidative damage. In addition, CS has no adverse effects on bacterial and fungal alpha diversity in ruminants. Dietary supplementation of CS enhances the population of beneficial microorganisms. Still, no data is available on the use of CS on reproductive performance in ruminants, so there is a need to evaluate the effects of using CS in breeding animals for an extended period. In this review, the action mode of CS was updated according to recently published data to highlight the beneficial effects of using CS in ruminants

    The impact of forearm immobilization and acipimox administration on muscle amino acid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy, young volunteers

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available on open access from the American Physiological Society via the DOI in this recordAlthough the mechanisms underpinning short-term muscle disuse atrophy and associated insulin resistance remain to be elucidated, perturbed lipid metabolism might be involved. Our aim was to determine the impact of acipimox administration (i.e. pharmacologically lowering circulating non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) availability) on muscle amino acid metabolism and insulin sensitivity during short-term disuse. Eighteen healthy individuals (age 22±1 years, BMI 24.0±0.6 kg·m-2) underwent 2 days forearm immobilization with placebo (PLA; n=9) or acipimox (ACI; 250 mg Olbetam; n=9) ingestion four times daily. Before and after immobilization, whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR), forearm glucose uptake (FGU, i.e. muscle insulin sensitivity), and amino acid kinetics were measured under fasting and hyperinsulinaemic-hyperaminoacidaemic-euglycaemic clamp conditions using forearm balance and L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine infusions. Immobilization did not affect GDR but decreased insulin-stimulated FGU in both groups; more so in ACI (from 53±8 to 12±5 µmol·min-1) than PLA (from 52±8 to 38±13 µmol·min-1; P<0.05). In ACI only, and in contrast to our hypothesis, fasting arterialised NEFA concentrations were elevated to 1.3±0.1 mmol·L-1 post-immobilization (P<0.05), and fasting forearm NEFA balance increased ~4-fold (P=0.10). Forearm phenylalanine net balance decreased following immobilization (P<0.10), driven by increased Ra (from 32±5 (fasting) and 21±4 (clamp) pre-immobilization to 53±8 and 31±4 post-immobilization; P<0.05) while Rd was unaffected by disuse or acipimox. Disuse-induced insulin resistance is accompanied by early signs of negative net muscle amino acid balance, which is driven by accelerated muscle amino acid efflux. Acutely elevated NEFA availability worsened muscle insulin resistance without affecting amino acid kinetics, suggesting increased muscle NEFA uptake may contribute to inactivity-induced insulin resistance but does not cause anabolic resistance.Wellcome TrustNational Institute of Agin

    Protocol for a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial using pure palmitoleic acid to ameliorate insulin resistance and lipogenesis in overweight and obese subjects with prediabetes

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    Palmitoleic acid (POA), a nonessential, monounsaturated omega-7 fatty acid (C16:1n7), is a lipid hormone secreted from adipose tissue and has beneficial effects on distant organs, such as the liver and muscle. Interestingly, POA decreases lipogenesis in toxic storage sites such as the liver and muscle, and paradoxically increases lipogenesis in safe storage sites, such as adipose tissue. Furthermore, higher POA levels in humans are correlated with better insulin sensitivity, an improved lipid profile, and a lower incidence of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular pathologies, such as myocardial infarction. In preclinical animal models, POA improves glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and steatosis of the muscle and liver, while improving insulin sensitivity and secretion. This double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial tests the hypothesis that POA increases insulin sensitivity and decreases hepatic lipogenesis in overweight and obese adult subjects with pre-diabetes. Important to note, that this is the first study ever to use pure (&gt;90%) POA with &lt; 0.3% palmitic acid (PA), which masks the beneficial effects of POA. The possible positive findings may offer a therapeutic and/or preventative pathway against diabetes and related immunometabolic diseases

    The Na/K-ATPase role as a signal transducer in lung inflammation

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    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is marked by damage to the capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium following edema formation and cell infiltration. Currently, there are no effective treatments for severe ARDS. Pathologies such as sepsis, pneumonia, fat embolism, and severe trauma may cause ARDS with respiratory failure. The primary mechanism of edema clearance is the epithelial cells’ Na/K-ATPase (NKA) activity. NKA is an enzyme that maintains the electrochemical gradient and cell homeostasis by transporting Na+ and K+ ions across the cell membrane. Direct injury on alveolar cells or changes in ion transport caused by infections decreases the NKA activity, loosening tight junctions in epithelial cells and causing edema formation. In addition, NKA acts as a receptor triggering signal transduction in response to the binding of cardiac glycosides. The ouabain (a cardiac glycoside) and oleic acid induce lung injury by targeting NKA. Besides enzymatic inhibition, the NKA triggers intracellular signal transduction, fostering proinflammatory cytokines production and contributing to lung injury. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the crucial role of NKA in edema clearance, lung injury, and intracellular signaling pathway activation leading to lung inflammation, thus putting the NKA as a protagonist in lung injury pathology

    Endometrial DNA methylation signatures during the time of breeding in relation to the pregnancy outcome in postpartum dairy cows fed a control diet or supplemented with rumen-protected methionine

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    Post calving metabolic stress reduces the fertility of high producing dairy cows possibly by altering the expression of genes in the maternal environment via epigenetic modifications. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify endometrial DNA methylation marks that can be associated with pregnancy outcomes in postpartum cows at the time of breeding. For this, twelve days post-calving, cows were either offered a control diet or supplemented daily with rumen-protected methionine. Cows showing heat 50–64 days postpartum were artificially inseminated. Endometrial cytobrush samples were collected 4–8 h after artificial insemination and classified based on the pregnancy out comes as those derived from cows that resulted in pregnancy or resulted in no pregnancy. The DNAs isolated from endometrial samples were then subject to reduced representative bisulfite sequencing for DNA methylation analysis. Results showed that in the control diet group, 1,958 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCGs) were identified between cows that resulted in pregnancy and those that resulted in no pregnancy of which 890 DMCGs were located on chr 27: 6217254–6225600 bp. A total of 537 DMCGs were overlapped with 313 annotated genes that were involved in various pathways including signal transduction, signalling by GPCR, aldosterone synthesis and secretion. Likewise, in methionine supplemented group, 3,430 CpG sites were differentially methylated between the two cow groups of which 18.7% were located on Chr27: 6217254–6225600 bp. A total of 1,781 DMCGS were overlapped with 890 genes which involved in developmental and signalling related pathways including WNT-signalling, focal adhesion and ECM receptor interaction. Interestingly, 149 genes involved in signal transduction, axon guidance and non-integrin membrane-ECM interactions were differentially methylated between the two cow groups irrespective of their feeding regime, while 453 genes involved in axon guidance, notch signalling and collagen formation were differentially methylated between cows that received rumen protected methionine and control diet irrespective of their fertility status. Overall, this study indicated that postpartum cows that could potentially become pregnant could be distinguishable based on their endometrial DNA methylation patterns at the time of breeding

    Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease: importance of inter-individual variation in the response of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

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    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the history in support of the role of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the controversy and consensus for the evidence in support of guidelines to remove and replace SFA with unsaturated fatty acids. The review will also examine the existence, origins, and implications for CVD risk of variability in serum LDL-cholesterol in response to these guidelines. While the quality of supporting evidence for the efficacy of restricting SFA on CVD risk has attracted controversy, this has helped to increase understanding of the inter-relationships between SFA, LDL-cholesterol and CVD, and reinforce confidence in this dietary recommendation. Nevertheless, there is significant inter-individual variation in serum LDL-C in response to this dietary change. The origins of this variation are multi-factorial and involve both dietary and metabolic traits. If serum biomarkers of more complex metabolic traits underlying LDL-responsiveness can be identified, this would have major implications for the targeting of these dietary guidelines to LDL-responders, to maximise the benefit to their cardiovascular health

    Placental origins of health &amp; disease:Therapeutic opportunities

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    Placental origins of health &amp; disease:Therapeutic opportunities

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    Effects of heat stress on performance, physiological parameters, and blood profiles of early-fattening Hanwoo steers in climate chambers

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    Objective This study was conducted to assess effects of heat stress on growth performance, physiological parameters, and blood profiles of Hanwoo steers during early-fattening period in climate chambers. Methods Four Hanwoo steers (body weight, 454.3±10.9 kg; age, 14±0.1 month) were allocated into four levels of temperature-humidity index (THI) in a 4×4 Latin square design for 21 days (pre-adaptation, 7 d; heat stress, 7 d; post-adaptation, 7 d) per period. Experimental treatments were assigned according to THI chart based on National Institute Animal Science (NIAS, 2022): Comfort (25.5°C to 26.5°C, 60%; THI 73 to 75), Mild (28°C to 29°C, 60%; THI 77 to 79), Moderate (29.5°C to 30.5°C, 80%; THI 82 to 84), and Severe (31°C to 32°C, 80%; THI 85 to 86) in separate climatic controlled chambers. Results The dry matter intake (DMI) of the formula feed was lower in Severe compared to Mild and Comfort (p<0.05). The DMI of rice straw was the lowest in Severe and lower in Moderate than Comfort and Mild (p<0.05). Both average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of Severe and Moderate were lower than those of Mild and Comfort (p<0.05). Water intake was the highest in Severe and lower in Moderate compared with Comfort and Mild (p<0.05). Heart rate and rectal temperature increased as THI level increased (p<0.05). Glucose was the lowest in Severe and lower in Moderate compared to Comfort (p<0.05). On the contrary, non-esterified fatty acid was the highest in Severe and lower in Moderate compared with Comfort (p<0.05). Blood urea nitrogen of Moderate and Severe were higher than those of Comfort and Mild (p<0.05). Cortisol increased as THI increased (p<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated the negative effects of heat stress on the performance and physiological responses of Hanwoo steers during the early-fattening period. In addition, it is judged that the THI chart for Hanwoo steers of National Institute of Animal Science (2022) was properly calculated
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