17,039 research outputs found

    Emerging viral infections in vulnerable populations:Epidemiology and mathematical modeling

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    Emerging viral infections in vulnerable populations:Epidemiology and mathematical modeling

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    Food, Freedom, Fairness, and the Family Farm

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    The concept of the “family farm” holds powerful sway within the American narrative, embodying both nostalgia for an imagined past and anxiety for a future perceived to be under threat. Since the founding of the United States, this cultural ideal has been invoked in support of a rosy vision of agrarian democracy while obscuring the ways in which the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s codified definition of “family farm” has unfairly aggregated advantages for the benefit of a particular kind of family (nuclear) and farmer (white, male, straight). At the same time, consumers are misled by an under-interrogated conflation of family farming with “good” farming practices. There exists a pervasive fear among Americans that the family farm is at risk of disappearing, and that something must be done to save it. This Essay analyzes the history of family farms in the United States and contends that reclaiming, not rescuing, is what needs to be done. As an alternative to preserving an institution whose benefits have always been constrained by gender, race, and wealth, we propose instead re-orienting efforts toward three concepts rooted in the family farm ideal but which we believe to possess greater transformative potential: fairness—the distribution of benefits along the agrifood chain to ensure adequate compensation and access; self-determination—the ability for communities to make their own decisions within the food system; and “good” farming—the specific practices that could lead to a more just, humane, and sustainable food system

    Becoming Halfling

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    Livestreamed play of tabletop games affords a new medium for analysis of racialization for game studies. For Dungeons & Dragons 5th edition (Multiple authors, 2014) actual plays, audiences can engage with racialized narratives in underappreciated ways. The actual play Critical Role (Critical Role, 2012-present) employs players’ knowledge of the genre of high fantasy to create collaborative, improvisational narratives which delve into themes of racism and bigotry. This dynamic often leads players to draw on real world political narratives and discourses in order to engage audiences’ prior knowledge and examine pertinent themes. This paper analyses one such example in the case of Nott the Brave, a character in Critical Role’s popular second campaign. Nott’s narrative arc, taking place over several hundred hours of gameplay, is a site of racialized play, problematizing simple narratives of representation and identity. This article employs textual analysis and semiotics in examining Nott’s racialization as a Goblin character. I draw heavily on Jenkins’s (2004) notion of gameplay as narrative architecture in considering the limits that racialized play allows the cast of Critical Role. In doing so, I offer insights into how tabletop roleplaying games actual plays might add nuance to debates surrounding narrative and gameplay in roleplaying games, especially as it relates to narratives of White supremacy and domination

    Possessing Amazonia: Global Disputes over the Amazon Basins and the Guiana Highlands (c.1840-c.1900)

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    Grounded on an integrated and global history of Amazonia, this research concerns the intersection between boundary making, the rise of nation-states and modern globalization. Taking South America Amazonia and the Guianas as field of study, our central enquiry is approached from a diachronic historical perspective, which serves our aim of writing a history of mutual recognition, relationships, and influences in remote frontier territories. The central problem to be interrogated, lies in the relation between process of connectedness, the emergence of new codes, symbols, and also ideas related to national states. Then, our aim is to identify the dimension and nature of the late territorial expansion of European empires in South America, the way official and alternative projects in border negotiations emerged in the late nineteenth century. Furthermore, we aim to see how economic and political schemes of colonization failed to establish new colonization schemes, this is, breaking the remoteness. This process connects with the struggle of imperial/national states to deal with distance, remote areas and, more importantly, with the people who lived and produced territory in these ‘isolated’ borderlands. Border arbitrations mapped these areas in search of historical sovereignty, yet found them replete with indigenous territorialities and alternative projects. This ‘clash of territorialities’ is the subject of this research. In this perspective, we reject conservative approaches towards territoriality, and constructivists’ interpretations that take the nation-state and nationalism as result of elites making goal. We conclude that Amazonia as an ‘opened frontier’ was the center of several clashes of territoriality, not only between European powers and new national states, but also between indigenous/black communities living via moving towards the remoteness as a region of refuge.The nation-state was only an option regarding the state building contingency; and boundary making was the creative element that gave ground for national narratives and cartographic anxieties of the fin de siècle. The history of the remote as an approach proposes, then, to overcome the difficulties of studying processes of connection, encounters, and globalization in an integrated perspective.Baseada numa história integrada e global da Amazónia, esta investigação incide sobre a intersecção entre a definição de fronteiras, a ascensão dos Estados-nação e a globalização moderna. Tomando como laboratório a Amazónia e as Guianas da América do Sul, o nosso inquérito central é abordado a partir de uma perspetiva histórica diacrónica, que serve o nosso objetivo de escrever uma história de reconhecimentos e influências mútuas, assim como relações e conexões em territórios fronteiriços remotos. O problema central a ser interrogado reside na relação entre o processo de estabelecer interdependência/conexões, a emergência de novos códigos, símbolos, e ideias relacionadas com os estados nacionais. O nosso objetivo central é identificar a dimensão e a natureza da expansão territorial tardia dos impérios europeus na América do Sul, a forma como os projetos oficiais e alternativos nas regiões fronteiriças emergiram em finais do século XIX, e como os novos esquemas económicos e políticos de colonização não conseguiram se estabelecer, isto é, romper o remoto. Esse processo está ligado à luta dos Estados imperiais/nacionais para lidar com a distância, áreas remotas e, mais importante ainda, com os povos que viveram e produziram território nestas terras fronteiriças ‘isoladas’. As arbitragens fronteiriças mapearam estas áreas em busca da soberania histórica, mas encontraram-nas repletas de territorialidades indígenas e projetos alternativos. Este ‘choque de territorialidades’ é o tema desta investigação. Nesta perspetiva, rejeitamos abordagens conservadoras sobre territorialidades e interpretações construtivistas que tomam o Estado-nação e o nacionalismo como resultado de projetos elitistas horizontais. Concluímos que a Amazónia como ‘fronteira aberta’ foi o centro de vários choques de territorialidade, não só entre potências europeias e novos Estados nacionais, mas também entre comunidades pretas/indígenas que se moveram/viveram no remoto como uma região de refúgio; o Estado-nação era apenas uma opção na contingência da construção do Estado; as fronteiras foram os elementos criativos que deram terreno às narrativas nacionais e às ansiedades cartográficas do fin de siècle. A história do remoto como abordagem propõe, então, ultrapassar as dificuldades de estudar processos de conexão, encontros, e globalização numa perspectiva integrada

    The Legacies of Exclusion: Asian Americans and the California Voting Rights Act

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    A quiet revolution has spread throughout California. Since the California Voting Rights Act became law in 2001, 170 cities have transitioned from at-large to by-district elections, where voters in a geographic district elect one city council member. This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the California Voting Rights Act on Asian American political participation and representation in local elections. I begin by tracing the roots of discrimination against Asian immigrants and exploring the construction of the pan-Asian identity. I examine the legacies of exclusion on Asian political participation and representation in political offices. I analyze Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act and the impetus for the CVRA’s enactment, which lowered the legal standards to prove a violation. The CVRA’s legal remedies for minority vote dilution evolved to match California’s unique demographics as a minority-majority state. I conduct one case study on the City of Santa Clara, which is the only city to go to trial against Asian American plaintiffs. I found data on seventy California cities with above a 20% Asian population and identified each city’s electoral system and Asian city council members. I argue that the context matters when evaluating the effectiveness of the CVRA and by-district elections. While the CVRA has done significant work in dismantling the minority vote diluting effects of at-large elections, it employs too little discretion in switching from at-large to by-district elections. Switching from at-large to by-district elections should be done intentionally and deliberately while considering and preserving communities of interest. The CVRA remains important legislation for Asian communities as barriers to political empowerment persist. The California Voting Rights Act takes a significant step forward in the fight for Asian American representation and participation at the local level

    OHH HE LIKES THE GIRLS: A GENEALOGY OF THE “TRANNY CHASER”

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    Research presented in this project examines how the social construction of sexuality affects cisgender (cis) men\u27s attraction to transgender women. While mainstream discourse roots gender normative males\u27 attraction to transgender women in heterosexuality, this project demonstrates how cis-trans pairings emerged from homosexuality in the twentieth century. This project traces the way sexologists\u27 elaboration of the differences between sex, gender, and sexuality helped to distinguish transfeminine people from trans-attracted gender normative males using Foucauldian genealogy. Further, this project examines how researchers have adapted nineteenth-century frameworks of same-sex desires as sexual fetishes to construct gender-conforming “healthy” desires aimed at transsexual women by using the elaboration of these categories in the science of transsexualism. By doing so, this project illustrates how researchers deemphasized the body of trans people and elevated their gender to ensure a white middle-class cis-normative society

    Competencia global y educación literaria: fundamentos teóricos y aportes críticos

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    E El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los resultados de una revisión teórica sistemática de alcance internacional sobre la noción emergente de competencia global, identificando su potencial para la educación literaria. Las fuentes revisadas son artículos y trabajos de investigación publicados en los últimos quince años, y seleccionados en bases de datos especializadas. El estudio revela cómo la competencia global se configura desde la movilización de dimensiones como comprender múltiples perspectivas, comunicar eficazmente con audiencias diversas, indagar sobre el mundo y emprender acciones éticamente responsables, junto con componentes como la conciencia intercultural y la alfabetización crítica. En este escenario educativo, se analiza el papel que debe desempeñar una educación literaria que conecte al alumnado con el mundo, acompañándole en el descubrimiento, análisis e interpretación de cuestiones globales y multiculturales, desde la literatura infantil y juvenil. Como conclusión, se afirma que esta perspectiva implica la revisión del canon literario y la aplicación de propuestas metodológicas de mediación que focalicen la gestión del aula y las estrategias de interacción comunicativa a partir de los textos
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