4,796,588 research outputs found

### Measurement

This two-part activity provides an introduction to the basics of measurement (linear, mass, volume, density) and discusses the role of inferential statistics in comparing any two measurements. The concept of random variations in measurements is introduced, which leads to a discussion of binomial distributions and probability in comparing measurements and results. Students will use online databases to form null hypotheses and test them using an online t-test calculator. Links to datasets, an online statistical application, and to related sites are also provided. Educational levels: Undergraduate lower division, High school

### Measurement

In general, you are quite familiar with measurements, as almost any occupation requires measurements of some kind. Carpenters measure boards for cutting, nurses measure blood pressure in patients, tailors measure fabric for garments, and advertising executives measure the public\u27s acceptance of their sales pitches. You will therefore undoubtedly be utilizing measurement in your chosen career, regardless of the field you enter. Measurement plays a particularly large role in science. In their studies, scientists gather data, and to do this they use measurements. Scientists measure the concentration of gases in the atmosphere, the growth of organisms under varying conditions, the rate of biochemical reactions, the distance of stars from the earth, and an innumerable number of other things. As measurements form the basis of scientific inquiry, they are deserving of in-depth analysis in lab. In a scientific experiment, the investigator examines the effects of variations in the independent variable on the dependent variable through measurements. For example, let\u27s assume a biologist is studying the effect of temperature on plant growth. She sets up several different temperature conditions, and grows groups of plants from seedlings in each condition. When the experiment ends, she must compare plant growth in the plants from different temperatures. But how should she do this? Should she just look at the plants and decide which grew the best? Should she pick up the plants and feel which ones have the greatest mass? Of course not. She would use some sort of quantitative measurement, such as measuring the height of each plant\u27s stem in centimeters or determining the total plant biomass in grams. Whichever measurement she chooses, she would need to utilize an instrument to make it

### Towards Designing a Performance Measurement System for the CGIAR : Draft Report

The System Office established the Working Group on Performance Measurement in May 2003, under the Co-Chairmanship of two ExCo members: Kevin Cleaver (ExCo/FC Chair) and Luis Arango (ExCo/PC member). Three sets of activities were carried out in preparation for the first meeting of the WG on September 5, 2003:(1) The CGIAR Secretariat prepared a Sourcebook on Performance Measurement in Research Institutions and Programs as background on approaches and methods of performance measurement being used in similar organizations globally.(2) Members of the WG shared additional information relevant to the objectives of the exercise (e.g., papers, articles);(3) A sub-group of the WG (made up of technical experts and resource persons1) met for a two day workshop on August 11-12, 2003 to discuss and outline performance measurement options that could be considered by the WG at its September 5 meeting, as a means of facilitating the task of the WG. This paper reflects the outcome of this preparatory workshop.The paper is organized as follows: the remainder of this chapter discusses the rationalebehind the worldwide trends towards Performance Measurement and offers definitions ofsome key terms. Chapter 2 focuses on the CGIAR, describing potential purposes and usesof performance measurement, identifying possible key elements of a performance measurement system, and outlining how such a system could fit into the planning and evaluation processes of the CGIAR. The final chapter summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations. This report was discussed during the Business Meeting at AGM 2003

### Contact Angle Measurement of Dental Restorative Materials by Drop Profile Image Analysis

The capability of initial microbial adhesion to dental restorative composites surface is influenced by the surface wettability of the materials. The common method to evaluate surface wettability of materials is contact angle measurement. The existing conventional method to measure contact angle is by means of a contact angle (CA)-Goniometer device, which is less practically applicable in clinical circumstances. Therefore, a more practical and applicable method is needed to measure contact angle in clinical circumstances. This research was performed to compare between contact angles measured by means of a CA-Goniometer device and a new practical method of drop profile image analysis. In addition, since there were two different formulas that can be used to calculate contact angle value from a drop profile image, then we also need to evaluate which formula is more reliable to be used. Tests were carried out using three composite discs (Clearfill-Kuraray Medical, Inc.) sample and deionised water for different measurement procedures. One drop of 3Âµl liquid was dropped onto the surface of the composite discs, and the drop profile image was captured by means of a customized home-made device connected to a digital camera. Two different formulas were used to calculate the contact angle value from the drop profile image, namely the â€ślinier gradient equationâ€ť and the â€śtangential lineâ€ť. The contact angle values obtained from the two different formulas were compared with the value obtained from the conventional method descriptively. Tests were carried out using three composite discs (Clearfill-Kuraray Medical, Inc.) sample and deionised water for different measurement procedures. One drop of 3Âµl liquid was dropped onto the surface of the composite discs, and the drop profile image was captured by means of a customized home-made device connected to a digital camera. Two different formulas were used to calculate the contact angle value from the drop profile image, namely the â€ślinier gradient equationâ€ť and the â€śtangential lineâ€ť. The contact angle values obtained from the two different formulas were compared with the value obtained from the conventional method descriptively. The differences in percentage between the contact angle value calculated by the â€ślinier gradient equationâ€ť and â€śtangential lineâ€ť formulas, and those calculated by means of the CA-Goniometer are 20,56% and 3,51%, respectively. It is obviously demonstrated that the value obtained by the â€śtangential lineâ€ť formula has a smaller difference compared to those obtained by the â€ślinier equation gradientâ€ť formula. Among the two different formulas, it is confirmed that the contact angle value calculated with the â€śtangential lineâ€ť formula has closer similarity with the value obtained from the CA-Goniometer. This result confirms that the new practical method of drop profile image analysis is promising for measuring contact angle values in clinical circumstances. Related to the drop profile image analysis, the â€śtangential lineâ€ť formula is more accurate compared to the â€ślinier gradient equationâ€ť formula

### Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement

We present a new method to measure the work $w$ performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution $P(w)$. The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a POVM (positive operator valued measure) reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution $P(w)$. This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.Comment: 4 page

### Final Technical Report For The Enhancement Of Autonomous Marine Vehicle Testing In The South Florida Testing Facility Range

The purpose of this grant was to carry out the six scientific experiments on the South Florida Testing Facility (SFTF) Range. In addition to the enhancements to the range, work was performed on all six with some being successfully completed while research continues on the long term tasks
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