120,669 research outputs found

    Risk penalties for enhanced reliability in co-optimized markets with uncertain generation

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    With increasing proportion of windpower, an important concern is that of maintaining the reliability of the electric grid in the face of higher supply-side volatility. In this paper, we examine the role of risk-based penalties in developing alternate designs in which firms combine energy bids associated with uncertain real-time availability with stable reserves bids. Such a study is carried out in a regime where firms have access to a day-ahead market, an uncertain real-time energy market and a reserves market. The resulting game-theoretic problem is a two-period stochastic Nash game with risk-based objectives and the associated equilibrium conditions are given by a complementarity problem. Preliminary numerical results on a 6-firm problem provide insights regarding the impact of reserves and risk penalties on wind-based generation, particularly in the face of high variability.U of I OnlyAuthor requested U of I Only Access for 2 years. Effective date 1/11/21. Approved by Thesis Office 1/8/21

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005‚Äď2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Confesiones religiosas y fiscalidad local = Religious confessions and local taxation

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    La evoluci√≥n de la sociedad espa√Īola ha provocado que las medidas fiscales adoptadas a favor de las confesiones religiosas, en particular, de la Iglesia Cat√≥lica, generen un debate pol√≠tico y social sobre las posibilidades de una reforma en este √°mbito. Este debate en torno a los beneficios fiscales aprobados a favor de las confesiones religiosas ha generado y genera numerosos debates que, en ocasiones, exceden la esfera puramente jur√≠dica. Sin embargo, el examen legal de esta cuesti√≥n no solo no se puede obviar, sino que debe ser el goce de un car√°cter esencial. En este sentido, estas entidades, en virtud de diferentes Acuerdos de cooperaci√≥n y de otra normativa aplicable al efecto, se encuentran exentas de manera total o parcial respecto a algunos tributos, muchos de ellos parte del sistema tributario local. Estos tributos han generado numerosos problemas en lo que su aplicaci√≥n se refiere, derivados fundamentalmente de la concurrencia de distintos textos normativos que inciden sobre esta cuesti√≥n. No obstante, la pertenencia de Espa√Īa a la Uni√≥n Europea y la necesaria observancia del Derecho Comunitario genera nuevos interrogantes que pueden conducir a una verdadera reformulaci√≥n de los beneficios fiscales vigentes para las confesiones religiosas. Es por ello que en este estudio se analizar√°n la procedencia de esas exenciones, desgranaremos la raz√≥n de su concesi√≥n y examinaremos las posibilidades para su pervivencia

    Calidad percibida del servicio en la cadena de aprovisionamiento en la industria turística

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    Este trabajo contribuye a relacionar las √°reas de la gesti√≥n de la calidad del servicio y la gesti√≥n de la cadena de aprovisionamiento. M√°s concretamente, permite comprender mejor c√≥mo la gesti√≥n de la calidad del servicio puede ayudar a describir, explicar y predecir los resultados en la cadena de aprovisionamiento. Se analizan qu√© factores son importantes considerar en la calidad percibida del servicio de la cadena de aprovisionamiento y c√≥mo influyen √©stos en la futura relaci√≥n comprador-proveedor. Para ello, se desarrolla y verifica un modelo incorporando constructos tales como desempe√Īo del servicio, calidad del servicio percibida, satisfacci√≥n y lealtad. La literatura aporta trabajos de estos constructor en la relaci√≥n empresa-cliente final y comprador-vendedor en empresas manufactureras, pero existe una laguna en la relaci√≥n entre miembros de de la cadena de aprovisionamiento en empresas de servicios. Por ello, el modelo fue verificado con 908 evaluaciones que realizaron los gerentes de establecimientos hoteleros sobre la calidad percibida del servicio del proveedor. El an√°lisis de los datos soporta el modelo conceptual donde la satisfacci√≥n y la lealtad de los gerentes de los hoteles al proveedor est√° muy influenciada por la calidad del servicio que recibe de √©ste

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    The influence of blockchains and internet of things on global value chain

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    Despite the increasing proliferation of deploying the Internet of Things (IoT) in global value chain (GVC), several challenges might lead to a lack of trust among value chain partners, e.g., technical challenges (i.e., confidentiality, authenticity, and privacy); and security challenges (i.e., counterfeiting, physical tempering, and data theft). In this study, we argue that Blockchain technology, when combined with the IoT ecosystem, will strengthen GVC and enhance value creation and capture among value chain partners. Thus, we examine the impact of Blockchain technology when combined with the IoT ecosystem and how it can be utilized to enhance value creation and capture among value chain partners. We collected data through an online survey, and 265 UK Agri-food retailers completed the survey. Our data were analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Our finding reveals that Blockchain technology enhances GVC by improving IoT scalability, security, and traceability when combined with the IoT ecosystem. Which, in turn, strengthens GVC and creates more value for value chain partners ‚Äď which serves as a competitive advantage. Finally, our research outlines the theoretical and practical contribution of combining Blockchain technology and the IoT ecosystem

    Digital Twinning for Industrial Energy Systems Utilizing Semantic Web Technologies

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    Arbeit an der Bibliothek noch nicht eingelangt - Daten nicht gepr√ľftAbweichender Titel nach √úbersetzung der Verfasserin/des VerfassersKumulative Dissertation aus sechs ArtikelFuture industrial energy systems have to adapt to new requirements, caused by a flexible production environment, the usage of volatile renewable energy sources, and the integration into energy markets. Consider these energy systems as Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (ICPSs), Digital Twins (DTs) are the key enabling technology for optimizing the operation by providing services for advanced monitoring, diagnosis, prediction, and control. Although the concept of DTs is not new, there are still missing architectural patterns and methods for creating them and their services in the domain of industrial energy systems efficiently. As an outcome, the thesis provides architectural guidelines for creating DTs and their services in the domain of industrial energy systems, considering RAMI 4.0 and utilizing existing OPC UA infrastructures to provide context information and run-time data stored in a federated knowledge graph. Therefore, a generic DT architecture is presented and a method is shown, how existing OPC UA information models can be used to instantiate domain-specific ontologies to provide context information for a DT. Also, an ontology- based data access method for OPC UA run-time data is developed to integrate time series data into a knowledge graph. The query performance of the developed approach is evaluated in comparison with other semantic sensor data integration methods. To showcase the applicability of the stored context information, the information is used to identify a data-driven simulation model automatically. In the end, functional and non- functional requirements and a service framework architecture for DTs are presented. The results of the thesis show the benefits of combining OPC UA and Semantic Web technology in the context of an architectural DT framework by making the DT adaptable to its environment and providing semantic interoperability between the DT‚Äôs services.16

    Der Einfluss von COVID-19 auf makro√∂konomische Variablen - Ein l√§nder√ľbergreifender Vergleich unter Verwendung eines heterogenen Modells der √Ėkonomie mit idiosynkratischen Risiko und SIR-Komponenten

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    Arbeit an der Bibliothek noch nicht eingelangt - Daten nicht gepr√ľftAbweichender Titel nach √úbersetzung der Verfasserin/des VerfassersThis thesis tries to better understand the dynamics of how macroeconomic models, combined with epidemiological models, describe the impact of COVID-19 on economies. Therefore, an epidemiological model (discretized baseline SIR) is integrated in an incomplete markets model, using uncertain labour efficiency, endogenous labour and non-linear taxation of capital and working income. The goal of this setup is to calibrate two model economies. One representing hard, immediate and multiple lockdowns as well as a social distancing policy embedded in a progressive tax system with minimal wages (Austria). The other representing mild, yet longer lasting multiple lockdowns, as well as a mild social distancing policy embedded in a less progressive tax system using minimal wages (United States of America). Based on the model derived and calibrated value of a statistical life as well as the consumption equivalent variation, a comparison of the two model economies transitional dynamics is conducted. These comparisons are based on exchanging lockdown policies of both economies. Consequences on allocation (aggregation of cross-sectional distributions) of the impact of COVID-19 of output, consumption, capital, labour, and investment during the transitional dynamics between the pre- and post-pandemic steady state are displayed. With respect to welfare households in the US model economy are willing to give up to 3.9 % of consumption on average, (3.7 % minimum, 4.1 % maximum) to be allowed to adopt the AUT policy, therefore preferring the AUT pandemic policies. This is measured by the consumption equivalent variation. In comparison to a no lockdown policy, both the AUT policy (multiple, temporary, strict lock-downs with social distancing) and the USA policy (multiple, longer lasting, less-strict lock-downs and social distancing) are preferred by the households. Therefore, are willing to give up 7.7 % in the AUT. vs no-policy case, and 4.1 % in the USA. vs no-policy case, of household consumption to keep the nation states policies. Results for AUT model economies are similar, yet inverted, with respect to nation state policies. Therefore preferring its own policy.7

    Strung pieces: on the aesthetics of television fiction series

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    As layered and long works, television fiction series have aesthetic properties that are built over time, bit by bit. This thesis develops a group of concepts that enable the study of these properties, It argues that a series is made of strung pieces, a system of related elements. The text begins by considering this sequential form within the fields of film and television. This opening chapter defines the object and methodology of research, arguing for a non-essentialist distinction between cinema and television and against the adequacy of textual and contextual analyses as approaches to the aesthetics of these shows. It proposes instead that these programmes should be described as televisual works that can be scrutinised through aesthetic analysis. The next chapters propose a sequence of interrelated concepts. The second chapter contends that series are composed of building blocks that can be either units into which series are divided or motifs that unify series and are dispersed across their pans. These blocks are patterned according to four kinds of relations or principles of composition. Repetition and variation are treated in tandem in the third chapter because of their close connection, given that variation emerges from established repetition. Exception and progression are also discussed together in the fourth chapter since they both require a long view of these serial works. The former, in order to be recognised as a deviation from the patterns of repetition and variation. The latter, In order to be understood in Its many dimensions as the series advances. Each of these concepts is further detailed with additional distinctions between types of units, motifs, repetitions, variations, and exceptions, using illustrative examples from numerous shows. In contrast, the section on progression uses a single series as case study, Carnivàle (2003-05), because this is the overarching principle that encompasses all the others. The conclusion considers the findings of the research and suggests avenues for their application
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