4,327 research outputs found

    Gabriel Harvey and the History of Reading: Essays by Lisa Jardine and others

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    Few articles in the humanities have had the impact of Lisa Jardine and Anthony Grafton’s seminal ‘Studied for Action’ (1990), a study of the reading practices of Elizabethan polymath and prolific annotator Gabriel Harvey. Their excavation of the setting, methods and ambitions of Harvey’s encounters with his books ignited the History of Reading, an interdisciplinary field which quickly became one of the most exciting corners of the scholarly cosmos. A generation inspired by the model of Harvey fanned out across the world’s libraries and archives, seeking to reveal the many creative, unexpected and curious ways that individuals throughout history responded to texts, and how these interpretations in turn illuminate past worlds. Three decades on, Harvey’s example and Jardine’s work remain central to cutting-edge scholarship in the History of Reading. By uniting ‘Studied for Action’ with published and unpublished studies on Harvey by Jardine, Grafton and the scholars they have influenced, this collection provides a unique lens on the place of marginalia in textual, intellectual and cultural history. The chapters capture subsequent work on Harvey and map the fields opened by Jardine and Grafton’s original article, collectively offering a posthumous tribute to Lisa Jardine and an authoritative overview of the History of Reading

    Dreaming the Ancestors: An Investigation into Contemporary British Druidry and the Ritualisation of Death.

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    This thesis is an investigation into the various ways in which Druids in the opening decades of the 21st Century think about and ritualise death. Section A begins with a detailed discussion of the nature of modern British Spiritual Druidry; tracing it from its origins at the end of the 18th Century to the diverse ways in which it manifests in modernity. It will attempt to reach some conclusions about how Druidry is best understood through a consideration of Druids’ own understandings of their identity and their place in the modern world. In particular, it will consider the extent to which Druidry in Britain can be categorised as indigenous religion in Britain. Section B consists of a broad overview of the ways in which modern Druids approach death. Particular consideration is given to the concept of Ancestors in Druidry, and the role they play in the spiritual lives and practices of Druids, as well as in funeral and other rituals concerned with the dead. The section concludes with an investigation into the phenomenon of ‘new barrows’ that are currently being built in various locations in the south of England. These are built in deliberate imitation of the chambered burial mounds of the Neolithic and Bronze Ages and are designed to take human cremated remains interred in niches in the walls. The significance of these barrows as funeral venues, both to Druids and in wider society will be discussed at length. The thesis will conclude that there are several aspects of the way that death is understood and ritualised in Druidry that are highly distinctive in contemporary Western society. It will further suggest that much can be learnt from both Druidry and the new barrows as models for the construction of meaningful and useful funerals

    'All Together Now': "Yellow Submarine"(1968), The Beatles, and Children's Film

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    This article examines The Beatles’ classic animated film, Yellow Submarine (dir. George Dunning, 1968) in terms of its appeal to multi-demographic audiences. While it has become de rigueur to argue in favour of Yellow Submarine as an artefact of the late-1960s counter-culture, its status as a children’s film has largely been overlooked. This article will argue that Yellow Submarine invites, and is able to sustain, a range of interpretations, particularly regarding its dual status as a quintessential film for children and family audiences, and as a much more adult-oriented production that captures the revolutionary spirit of the period. While Yellow Submarine embodies aspects of late-1960s British and North American culture, the author argues that the narrative transcends national cultural specificities and attempts to appeal to universal human desires and emotional states through its balancing of utopian consensus and cultural diversity, and through the galvanizing presence of The Beatles

    The Freedom of Influencing

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    Social media stars and the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) Act are clashing. Influencer marketing is a preferred way for entertainers, pundits, and everyday people to monetize their audiences and popularity. Manufacturers, service providers, retailers, and advertising agencies leverage influencers to reach into millions or even billions of consumer devices, capturing minutes or seconds of the market’s fleeting attention. FTC enforcement actions and private lawsuits have targeted influencers for failing to disclose the nature of a sponsorship relationship with a manufacturer, marketer, or service provider. Such a failure to disclose payments prominently is very common in Hollywood films and on radio and television, however. The Code of Federal Regulations, FTC notices, and press releases contain exemptions tailored to such legacy media. This Article addresses whether the disparate treatment of social media influencers and certain legacy media formats may amount to a content-based regulation of speech that violates the freedom of speech. Drawing on intellectual property law, consumer law, and securities law precedents, it argues that the more intense focus on disclosures by social media influencers infringes the freedom of influencing. It is irrational and discriminatory to impose greater obligations on influencers who are paid to mention or use products or services than on legacy media formats whose actors or directors mention or use similar products or services

    Femalization of the Genre of Literature; Novel Owners of the Novel

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    Unfairly female authors have been deprived of the title of “mothers” of English Novel and “fathers” have been taken as the sole male owners of the Novel. While not only the first professional novelist was a woman but the numbers of female novelists exceed that of the males. Female authors indefatigably undertook the process of femalization the genre of literature and the current study conducted through the qualitative research and text-analysis methods together with historical approach tried to put light to the fact that how female novelists contributed to the great genre of literature and strengthen it due to their fairness and their gender as well as their treatment of their subject. Aphra Behn penned Oroonoko of 1688 much earlier than Danial Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe of 1719. The purpose of this paper has, by no means, been to convert female writers from the lower novelists to higher ones. However, under the strict social conventions of the seventeenth and eighteenth century England, there had been buried some masterpieces of literary works which need to be delivered again to the world of literature, the negligence of which is a loss and the revival of which is a gain to both consumers and producers of literary works

    Building the New American Man: The Role of the United States Navy in Creating Ideas of Manhood, Masculinity, and an American Identity in the Early American Republic

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    After the Revolutionary War, the United States struggled to be recognized by the various global powers throughout the Atlantic World. The American propensity for claiming a neutral trade status, often led to conflict with other nations who were warring with one another. Particularly during their early years, the United States was challenged by Great Britain, the French, and the Barbary powers in the Mediterranean. Relying heavily on maritime trade and contracts, the United States needed to prove that, even without Britain backing them, they were a country worthy of these contracts and treaties. Presented as a social history of the United States Navy, this dissertation argues that it was the U.S. Navy that made these trade agreements possible by being the face and brand of America. Their actions and attitudes not only showed that the United States was a country with morals, humility, and honor, they were also not a country to be trifled with. Taking on the most powerful navies and authorities in the Atlantic and Mediterranean worlds, and not just surviving, but thriving, proved to the world that the United States deserved a place in the trade community. In addition, the U.S. Navy also provided an example of what the new American man was striving to become back home. Gentlemen of courage, honor, intrepidity, integrity, and bravery. Their actions gave the American populace a focus on which to unite, when so many topics threatened to tear them apart. The United States Navy, oft underrepresented in the annals of American History, were actually very important to understanding how and why the United States was given a place on the world stage, and the kind of image they were portraying to the world

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    A general mechanism of humor: reformulating the semantic overlap

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    This article proposes a cognitive mechanism of humour of general applicability, not restricted to verbal communication. It is indebted to Raskin's concept of script overlap, and conforms to the incongruity-resolution theoretical framework, but it is built on the notion of constraint, an abstract correspondence between sets of data. Under this view, script overlap is an outcome of a more abstractly described phenomenon, constraint overlap. The important concept of the overlooked argument is introduced to characterise the two overlapping constraints -- overt and covert. Their inputs and outputs are not directly encoded in utterances, but implicated by them, and their overlap results in another overlap at the level of the communicated utterances, that the incongruity reveals. Our hypothesis assumes as a given that the evocation of such constraints is a cognitive effect of the inferential process by which a hearer interprets utterances. We base this assumption on Hofstadter's theory of analogy-making as the essence of human thought. By substituting "stimuli" of any kind for "utterances" in this model, we obtain a mechanism as easily applicable to non-verbal communication -- slapstick, cartoons -- and we propose it describes the necessary and sufficient conditions for a communicative act in any modality to carry humour.Comment: 24 pages, 8 figure