19,183 research outputs found

    Liver-dependent lung remodeling during systemic inflammation alters responses to secondary infection

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    Systemic duress, like that elicited by sepsis, burns or trauma, predisposes patients to secondary pneumonia, demanding better understanding of host pathways influencing this deleterious connection. These pre-existing circumstances are capable of triggering the hepatic acute phase response (APR), which is essential for limiting susceptibility to secondary lung infections. To identify potential mechanisms underlying protection afforded by the lung-liver axis, our studies aimed to evaluate liver-dependent lung reprogramming when a systemic inflammatory challenge precedes pneumonia. WT mice and APR-deficient littermates lacking hepatocyte STAT3 (hepSTAT3-/-), a transcription factor necessary for full APR initiation, were challenged intraperitoneally with LPS to induce endotoxemia. After 18h, pneumonia was induced by intratracheal E. coli instillation. Endotoxemia alone elicited significant transcriptional alterations in the lungs of WT and hepSTAT3-/- mice as determined by bulk RNAseq, with nearly 2,000 differentially expressed genes between genotypes. The gene signatures revealed exaggerated immune activity in the lungs of hepSTAT3-/- mice, which were compromised in their capacity to launch additional cytokine responses to secondary infection. A separate study performed with single-cell RNASeq revealed a wide range of affected lung cells in hepSTAT3-/- mice, with macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells all exhibiting remodeled transcriptomes in the absence of an intact liver response. Proteomics revealed substantial liver-dependent modifications in the airspaces of pneumonic mice, implicating a network of dispatched liver-derived mediators influencing lung homeostasis. Coagulation proteins, including several acute phase proteins, were prevalent among these mediators, implying a dysregulation of this immune pathway despite no detectable change in blood clotting capacity in our initial studies. These results indicate that following systemic inflammation, liver acute phase changes dramatically remodel the lungs, resulting in a modified landscape for any stimuli encountered thereafter. Based on the established vulnerability of hepSTAT3-/- mice to secondary lung infections, we believe that intact liver function is critical for maintaining the immunological responsiveness of the lungs

    Image1_Comparison of proteomic landscape of extracellular vesicles in pleural effusions isolated by three strategies.TIF

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    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from pleural effusion (PE) is emerging as disease biomarkers. However, the methods for isolation of EVs from PE (pEVs) were rarely studied. In our study, three methods for isolating pEVs of lung cancer patients were compared, including ultracentrifugation (UC), a combination of UC and size exclusion chromatography (UC-SEC) and a combination of UC and density gradient ultracentrifugation (UC-DGU). The subpopulation of pEVs was identified by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western blotting (WB) and nano-flow cytometry (nFCM). Additionally, the proteomic landscape of pEVs was analyzed by Label-free proteomics. The results showed that, compared with UC and UC-DGU, the UC-SEC method separated pEVs with the highest purity. In the proteomic analysis, on average, 1595 proteins were identified in the pEVs isolated by UC-SEC, much more than pEVs isolated by UC (1222) or UC-DGU (807). Furthermore, approximately 90% of identified proteins in each method were found in the EVs public database ExoCarta. Consistent with this, GO annotation indicated that the core proteins identified in each method were mainly enriched in “extracellular exosome.” Many of the top 100 proteins with high expression in each method were suggested as protein markers to validate the presence of EVs in the MISEV2018 guidelines. In addition, combined with lung tissue-specific proteins and vesicular membrane proteins, we screened out and validated several novel protein markers (CD11C, HLA DPA1 and HLA DRB1), which were enriched in pEVs rather than in plasma EVs. In conclusion, our study shows that the method of UC-SEC could significantly improve the purity of EVs and the performance of mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling in analyzing pEVs. The exosomal proteins CD11C, HLA DPA1 and HLA DRB1 may act as potential markers of pEVs. The proteomic analysis of pEVs provides important information and new ideas for studying diseases complicated with PE.</p

    Holistic analysis of lysine acetylation in aquaculture pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus under bile salt stress

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    Lysine acetylation modification is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, which plays an important role in the metabolism and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Vibrio alginolyticus is a common pathogenic bacterium in aquaculture, and bile salt can trigger the expression of bacterial virulence. However, little is known about the function of lysine acetylation in V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress. In this study, 1,315 acetylated peptides on 689 proteins were identified in V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress by acetyl-lysine antibody enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics analysis found that the peptides motif ****A*Kac**** and *******Kac****A* were highly conserved, and protein lysine acetylation was involved in regulating various cellular biological processes and maintaining the normal life activities of bacteria, such as ribosome, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, two-component system, and bacterial secretion system. Further, 22 acetylated proteins were also found to be related to the virulence of V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress through secretion system, chemotaxis and motility, and adherence. Finally, comparing un-treated and treated with bile salt stress lysine acetylated proteins, it was found that there were 240 overlapping proteins, and found amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, beta-Lactam resistance, fatty acid degradation, carbon metabolism, and microbial metabolism in diverse environments pathways were significantly enriched in bile salt stress alone. In conclusion, this study is a holistic analysis of lysine acetylation in V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress, especially many virulence factors have also acetylated

    Chitosan oligosaccharide as a plant immune inducer on the Passiflora spp. (passion fruit) CMV disease

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    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), one of the main viruses, is responsible for Passiflora spp. (passion fruit) virus diseases, which negatively affect its planting, cultivation, and commercial quality. In this study, a laboratory anti-CMV activity screening model for Passiflora spp. CMV disease was first established. Then, the effects of different antiviral agents of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), dufulin (DFL), and ningnanmycin (Ning) on CMV virulence rate in Passiflora spp. were determined. The virulence rate and anti-CMV activity in Passiflora spp. treated with COS were 50% and 45.48%, respectively, which were even better than those of DFL (66.67% and 27.30%, respectively) and Ning (83.30% and 9.17%, respectively). Field trials test results showed COS revealed better average control efficiency (47.35%) against Passiflora spp. CMV disease than those of DFL (40.93%) and Ning (33.82%), indicating that COS is effective in the control of the Passiflora spp. CMV disease. Meanwhile, the nutritional quality test results showed that COS could increase the contents of soluble solids, titratable acids, vitamin C, and soluble proteins in Passiflora spp. fruits as well as enhance the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activity in the leaves of Passiflora spp. seedlings. In addition, the combined transcriptome and proteome analysis results showed that COS mainly acted on the Brassinosteroids (BRs) cell signaling pathway, one of plant hormone signal transduction pathway, in Passiflora spp., thus activating the up-regulated expression of TCH4 and CYCD3 genes to improve the resistance to CMV disease. Therefore, our study results demonstrated that COS could be used as a potential plant immune inducer to control the Passiflora spp. CMV disease in the future

    Identifizierung prÀdiktiver und prognostischer Biomarker in unterschiedlichen Tumorkompartimenten des ösophagealen Adenokarzinoms

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    Das ösophageale Adenokarzinom zeigt eine global steigende Inzidenz und hat mit einer 5-Jahres-Überlebensrate von weniger als 25% eine schlechte Prognose. Personalisierte TherapieansĂ€tze sind selten und prognostische/prĂ€diktive Biomarker des Tumormikromilieus sind unzureichend charakterisiert. Die kumulative Promotion nĂ€hert sich dieser Problematik in drei unterschiedlichen Schwerpunkten. 1. Zur Identifizierung Kompartiment-spezifischer Biomarker wurde eine Methode entwickelt, welche als kostengĂŒnstige Alternative zum sc-Seq Expressionsprofile individueller Zelltypen generiert. Dabei erfolgt die Extraktion der RNA nicht aus Einzelzellen, sondern aus flowzytometrisch-getrennten Zellkompartimenten. Die Separation der Proben in Epithelzellen, Immunzellen und Fibroblasten wurde durch verschiedene Verfahren validiert und eine suffiziente Ausbeute an RNA auch fĂŒr kleine Gewebemengen gezeigt. 2. Biomarker des Immunzellkompartiments als therapeutische Angriffspunkte wurden in einem Patientenkollektiv von bis zu 551 Patienten auf ihre Bedeutung beim EAC ĂŒberprĂŒft. Es zeigte sich eine Expression der Immuncheckpoints LAG3, VISTA und IDO auf TILs durch IHC und RNA-Sonden basierte Verfahren in einem relevanten Anteil (LAG3: 11,4%, VISTA: 29%, IDO: 52,6%). Es konnte eine prognostisch gĂŒnstige Bedeutung der VISTA, LAG3 und IDO Expression gezeigt werden. Durch den Vergleich von Genexpressionsprofilen aus therapienaiven und vorbehandelten Tumoren konnte zudem ein immunsuppressiver Effekt von neoadjuvanten Therapiekonzepten auf das Tumormikromilieu des EACs gezeigt werden. Dabei kam es zur verminderten Expression von Checkpoints und Anzahl TILs nach (Radio-) Chemotherapie. 3. Im Tumorzellkompartiment wurde die Rolle von Amplifikationen in ErbB-Rezeptor abhĂ€ngigen Signalwegen durch FISH-Technik und Immunhistochemie evaluiert. Es fanden sich KRAS Amplifikationen in 17,1%, PIK3CA Amplifikationen in 5% sowie eine HER2/neu-Überexpression in 14,9% der untersuchten Tumore

    Shuffled ATG8 interacting motifs form an ancestral bridge between UFMylation and autophagy

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    UFMylation involves the covalent modification of substrate proteins with UFM1 (Ubiquitin‐fold modifier 1) and is important for maintaining ER homeostasis. Stalled translation triggers the UFMylation of ER‐bound ribosomes and activates C53‐mediated autophagy to clear toxic polypeptides. C53 contains noncanonical shuffled ATG8‐interacting motifs (sAIMs) that are essential for ATG8 interaction and autophagy initiation. However, the mechanistic basis of sAIM‐mediated ATG8 interaction remains unknown. Here, we show that C53 and sAIMs are conserved across eukaryotes but secondarily lost in fungi and various algal lineages. Biochemical assays showed that the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a functional UFMylation pathway, refuting the assumption that UFMylation is linked to multicellularity. Comparative structural analyses revealed that both UFM1 and ATG8 bind sAIMs in C53, but in a distinct way. Conversion of sAIMs into canonical AIMs impaired binding of C53 to UFM1, while strengthening ATG8 binding. Increased ATG8 binding led to the autoactivation of the C53 pathway and sensitization of Arabidopsis thaliana to ER stress. Altogether, our findings reveal an ancestral role of sAIMs in UFMylation‐dependent fine‐tuning of C53‐mediated autophagy activation

    Targeted proteomics links virulence factor expression with clinical severity in staphylococcal pneumonia

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    IntroductionThe bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus harbors numerous virulence factors that impact infection severity. Beyond virulence gene presence or absence, the expression level of virulence proteins is known to vary across S. aureus lineages and isolates. However, the impact of expression level on severity is poorly understood due to the lack of high-throughput quantification methods of virulence proteins.MethodsWe present a targeted proteomic approach able to monitor 42 staphylococcal proteins in a single experiment. Using this approach, we compared the quantitative virulomes of 136 S. aureus isolates from a nationwide cohort of French patients with severe community-acquired staphylococcal pneumonia, all requiring intensive care. We used multivariable regression models adjusted for patient baseline health (Charlson comorbidity score) to identify the virulence factors whose in vitro expression level predicted pneumonia severity markers, namely leukopenia and hemoptysis, as well as patient survival.ResultsWe found that leukopenia was predicted by higher expression of HlgB, Nuc, and Tsst-1 and lower expression of BlaI and HlgC, while hemoptysis was predicted by higher expression of BlaZ and HlgB and lower expression of HlgC. Strikingly, mortality was independently predicted in a dose-dependent fashion by a single phage-encoded virulence factor, the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL), both in logistic (OR 1.28; 95%CI[1.02;1.60]) and survival (HR 1.15; 95%CI[1.02;1.30]) regression models.DiscussionThese findings demonstrate that the in vitro expression level of virulence factors can be correlated with infection severity using targeted proteomics, a method that may be adapted to other bacterial pathogens