807,196 research outputs found

    The Interaction Between Labor Market Policy and Monetary Policy: An Analysis of Time Inconsistency Problems

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    This paper studies the interaction between time inconsistency problems in labor market policy and monetary policy. When both policies are discretionary, there is a positive inflation bias, whereas the bias in labor market programs may be either positive or negative. A commitment of labor market programs to zero increases inflation, as compared to the case when both labor market policy and monetary policy are discretionary. Delegation of labor market policy to a liberal labor market board may improve the discretionary outcome, even if labor market programs crowd out regular employment. A conservative central bank always reduces the social loss, even when monetary policy interacts with labor market policy.TBA

    A Welfare Economic Analysis of Labor Market Policies in the Harris-Todaro Model

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    This paper presents a welfare economic analysis of the benefits of various labor market policies in the Harris-Todaro labor market model. The policies considered are a policy of modern sector job creation, which I call modern sector enlargement (MSENL); a policy of rural development, which I call traditional sector enrichment (TSENR); and a policy of wage limitation in the urban economy, which I call modern sector wage restraint (MSWR). First, I analyze the inequality effects of these policies. I then perform two welfare economic analyses, the first based on summary measures of labor market conditions (total labor earnings, unemployment, inequality of labor incomes, and poverty rates) and the second based on dominance analysis in the labor market, in both cases assuming that the costs are borne elsewhere. The results of the welfare analyses are compared, and it is shown that TSENR unambiguously increases welfare in the labor market using both approaches, the other policies yield ambiguous results, and no policy is unambiguously welfare-decreasing

    Interactions Between Trade Policy and Labor Market Policy and Their Effects on Development

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    [Excerpt] Studies of various countries show that those which have emphasized an export-led growth strategy have, in general, outperformed those which have followed an import substitution orientation. Accordingly, AID is currently focusing on export promotion as a means to stimulate economic growth and development. An effective export-led strategy requires an integrated overall policy setting. In particular, trade and foreign sector policies must be related to labor market policies. Because labor market policy might reinforce or nullify trade policy, and because labor market issues merit attention per se, AID has an interest in research on how trade policies and labor market policies interact to affect economic development. The research reported here -- primarily theoretical but also including one empirical study -- helps fill that need

    Identifying the role of labor markets for monetary policy in an estimated DSGE model

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    We focus on a quantitative assessment of rigid labor markets in an environment of stable monetary policy. We ask how wages and labor market shocks feed into the inflation process and derive monetary policy implications. Towards that aim, we structurally model matching frictions and rigid wages in line with an optimizing rationale in a New Keynesian closed economy DSGE model. We estimate the model using Bayesian techniques for German data from the late 1970s to present. Given the pre-euro heterogeneity in wage bargaining we take this as the first-best approximation at hand for modelling monetary policy in the presence of labor market frictions in the current European regime. In our framework, we find that labor market structure is of prime importance for the evolution of the business cycle, and for monetary policy in particular. Yet shocks originating in the labor market itself may contain only limited information for the conduct of stabilization policy. --Labor market,wage rigidity,bargaining,Bayesian estimation

    Identifying the role of labor markets for monetary policy in an estimated DSGE model

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    We focus on a quantitative assessment of rigid labor markets in an environment of stable monetary policy. We ask how wages and labor market shocks feed into the inflation process and derive monetary policy implications. Towards that aim, we structurally model matching frictions and rigid wages in line with an optimizing rationale in a New Keynesian closed economy DSGE model. We estimate the model using Bayesian techniques for German data from the late 1970s to present. Given the pre-euro heterogeneity in wage bargaining we take this as the first-best approximation at hand for modelling monetary policy in the presence of labor market frictions in the current European regime. In our framework, we find that labor market structure is of prime importance for the evolution of the business cycle, and for monetary policy in particular. Yet shocks originating in the labor market itself may contain only limited information for the conduct of stabilization policy. JEL Classification: E32, E52, J64, C11bargaining, Bayesian estimation, Labor market, wage rigidity

    Will EMU increase eurosclerosis?

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    In this paper we study the relationship between labor market institutions and monetary policy. We use a simple macroeconomic framework to show how optimal monetary policy rules depend on labor institutions (labor adjustment costs, and nominal and real wage rigitidy) and social preferences regarding inflation, employment, and real wages. We also calibrate our model to compute how the change in social welfare brought about by giving up monetary policy as a result of joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) depends on institutions and preferences. We then use the calibrated model to analyze how EMU affects the incentives for labor market reform, both for reforms that increase the economy's adjustment potential and for those that affect the long-run unemployment rate.EMU, monetary union, labor market institutions, monetary policy, labor market reform, eurosclerosis, political economy, unemployment

    And Then There Were Four ...: How Many (and Which) Measures of Active Labor Market Policy Do We Still Need? ; Finding a Balance after the Evaluation of the Hartz Reforms in Germany

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    Through the Hartz reforms, German active labor market policy was fundamentally restructured and has since been systematically evaluated. This paper reviews the recent evaluation findings and draws some conclusions for the future setup of active labor market policies in Germany. It argues in favor of a reduced range of active labor market policy schemes focusing on programs with proven positive effects (that are wage subsidies, training, start-up grants and placement vouchers) and calls for a systematic evaluation of all instruments not scrutinized so far.Active labor market policy, Germany, evaluation

    THE TAX POLICY AND ITS IMPACT ON LABOUR MARKET IN SLOVAKIA

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    The global financial crisis has manifest unfavorably also in Slovakia namely in economic growth decline and in the increase unemployment. The labor market is depressed by excess labor supply over labor demand. Under the impression of global crisis the Slovak republic, as well as the other states, takes in arrangements for reduction its impacts on economy and on entrepreneurs and citizens. Received measures of labor market policy against crisis should affect labor demand, i.e. willingness to employ and incentive to find a job. Tax policy measures against crisis should support low consumption through lowering tax burden of income and improvement business environment.tax policy, labor market, unemployment, tax stabilization function, employment policy, employee premium

    Labor Markets in CIS Countries

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    This work is done as contribution to the Regional Human Development Report 2004 section 3.7 on “Labor Markets”. The paper focuses on discussing peculiarities of the labor market transition in CIS countries, features of unemployment, labor legislation, and role of the trade unions. The paper gathers information on the labor markets of CIS and Eastern European countries that was available by summer 2004, and draws policy recommendations based on comparison between these two groups of countries. The main conclusion is that the transformation of labor markets is not complete in any of the CIS countries; most of the problems that prevailed in the early 1990s remain. These include: centralized wage setting in five CIS countries – Belarus, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; extensive unemployment and underemployment, much of which is hidden; ineffective systems of labor relations and social protection; large mismatches between the labor market skills supplied and the skills demanded by new market economies; inadequate official labor market data. Fortunately, the strong economic growth experienced by most CIS countries since 1999 has increased the demand for labor and is putting downward pressures on unemployment rates. This offers a window of opportunity for policy makers seeking to further transform labor markets, and to modernize labor relations and social protection systems. The above analysis suggests the policy recommendations to speed up further transformation.Labor markets of CIS (FSU) countries, labor market transition, unemployment, labor unions, labor protection, labor migration, labor law and labor market institutions, labor market policy in transition countries

    Labor Market Policies, Institutions and Employment Rates in the EU-27

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    We compare labor market policies, institutions and outcomes for the EU member states, for the period 2000-2005. We document the main differences in Labor Market Policies across EU members, including new member states after 2004. We focus on indicators of policy generosity (expenditures relative to GDP) and relate these and other policy indicators to indicators of labor market outcomes and performance. Our results show that, on a cross-country basis, higher rates of employment are in general associated with: (i) higher expenditures on labor market policies, especially on active policies for countries with a high pro-work attitude; (ii) a lower degree of rigidity in labor market institutions and in product market regulation.labor market policies, labor market outcomes, European social models
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