38,223 research outputs found

    Application of lactic acid bacteria for the biopreservation of meat products: A systematic review

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    .The increasing concern of consumers about food quality and safety and their rejection of chemical additives has promoted the breakthrough of the biopreservation field and the development of studies on the use of beneficial bacteria and their metabolites as potential natural antimicrobials for shelf life extension and enhanced food safety. Control of foodborne pathogens in meat and meat products represents a serious challenge for the food industry which can be addressed through the intelligent use of bio-compounds or biopreservatives. This article aims to systematically review the available knowledge about biological strategies based on the use of lactic acid bacteria to control the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms in different meat products. The outcome of the literature search evidenced the potential of several strains of lactic acid bacteria and their purified or semi-purified antimicrobial metabolites as biopreservatives in meat products for achieving longer shelf life or inhibiting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, especially when combined with other technologies to achieve a synergistic effect.S

    Studies of strategic performance management for classical organizations theory & practice

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    Nowadays, the activities of "Performance Management" have spread very broadly in actually every part of business and management. There are numerous practitioners and researchers from very different disciplines, who are involved in exploring the different contents of performance management. In this thesis, some relevant historic developments in performance management are first reviewed. This includes various theories and frameworks of performance management. Then several management science techniques are developed for assessing performance management, including new methods in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Soft System Methodology (SSM). A theoretical framework for performance management and its practical procedures (five phases) are developed for "classic" organizations using soft system thinking, and the relationship with the existing theories are explored. Eventually these results are applied in three case studies to verify our theoretical development. One of the main contributions of this work is to point out, and to systematically explore the basic idea that the effective forms and structures of performance management for an organization are likely to depend greatly on the organizational configuration, in order to coordinate well with other management activities in the organization, which has seemingly been neglected in the existing literature of performance management research in the sense that there exists little known research that associated particular forms of performance management with the explicit assumptions of organizational configuration. By applying SSM, this thesis logically derives some main functional blocks of performance management in 'classic' organizations and clarifies the relationships between performance management and other management activities. Furthermore, it develops some new tools and procedures, which can hierarchically decompose organizational strategies and produce a practical model of specific implementation steps for "classic" organizations. Our approach integrates popular types of performance management models. Last but not least, this thesis presents findings from three major cases, which are quite different organizations in terms of management styles, ownership, and operating environment, to illustrate the fliexbility of the developed theoretical framework

    Recent Hong Kong cinema and the generic role of film noir in relation to the politics of identity and difference

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    This thesis identifies a connection in Hong Kong cinema with classical Hollywood film noir and examines what it will call a 'reinvestment' in film noir in recent films. It will show that this reinvestment is a discursive strategy that both engages the spectator-subject in the cinematic practice and disengages him or her from the hegemony of the discourse by decentring the narrative. The thesis argues that a cinematic practice has occurred in the recent reinvestment of film noir in Hong Kong, which restages the intertextual relay of the historical genre that gives rise to an expectation of ideas about social instability. The noir vision that is seen as related to the fixed categories of film narratives, characterizations and visual styles is reassessed in the course of the thesis using Derridian theory. The focus of analysis is the way in which the constitution of meanings is dependent on generic characteristics that are different. Key to the phenomenon is a film strategy that destabilizes, differs and defers the interpretation of crises-personal, social, political and/or cultural-by soliciting self-conscious re-reading of suffering, evil, fate, chance and fortune. It will be argued that such a strategy evokes the genre expectation as the film invokes a network of ideas regarding a world perceived by the audience in association with the noirish moods of claustrophobia, paranoia, despair and nihilism. The noir vision is thus mutated and transformed when the film device differs and defers the conception of the crises as tragic in nature by exposing the workings of the genre amalgamation and the ideological function of the cinematic discourse. Thus, noirishness becomes both an affect and an agent that contrives a self-reflexive re-reading of the tragic vision and of the conventional comprehension of reality within the discursive practice. The film strategy, as an agent that problematizes the film form and narrative, gives rise to what I call a politics of difference, which may also be understood as the Lyotardian 'language game' or a practice of 'pastiche' in Jameson's terminology. Under the influence of the film strategy, the spectator is enabled to negotiate his or her understanding of recent Hong Kong cinema diegetically and extra-diegetically by traversing different positions of cinematic identification. When the practice of genre amalgamation adopts the visual impact of the noirish film form, the film turns itself into a playing field of 'fatal' misrecognition or a site of question. Through cinematic identification and alienation from the identification, the spectator-subject is enabled to experience the misrecognition as the film slowly foregrounds the way in which the viewer's presence is implicated in the narrative. This thesis demonstrates that certain contemporary Hong Kong films introduce this selfconscious mode of explication and interpretation, which solicits the spectator to negotiate his or her subject-position in the course of viewing. The notions of identity and subjectivity under scrutiny will thus be reread. With reference to The Private Eye Blue, Swordsman II, City a/Glass and Happy Together, the thesis shall explore the ways in which the Hong Kong films enable and facilitate a negotiation of cultural identity

    The Caribbean Syzygy: a study of the novels of Edgar Mittelholzer and Wilson Harris

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    The problem of racial inheritance - the "search for identity" - is a recurring theme in the criticism of Caribbean literature. It is a pre-occupation with Caribbean writers, affecting both subject matter and literary quality, as FM. Birbalsingh, for example, has shown with reference to the novels of John Hearne and E,R. Braithwaite (Caribbean quarterly Vols. 14, December 1968 and 16, March 1970). This study of the work of Edgar Mittelholzer and Wilson Harris will attempt to show that there are important areas still to be explored relating Caribbean literature to its complex racial and cultural background. Both Mittelholzer and Harris deserve close, critical study in their own right; but a parallel examination reveals similarities and differences which bring into sharper focus wider concerns of Caribbean literature. The two important directions of West Indian writing are more clearly seen: the one, pioneered by Mittelholzer, in which the writer looks outward towards a "parent" culture, and the other looking inward, seeking in its own, complex inheritance the raw material for new and original growth. Mittelholzer and Harris are both Guyanese of mixed racial stock, both deeply concerned with the psychological effects of this mixture, and both writers have a profound awareness of the Guyanese historical and cultural heritage. They also share a deep feeling for the Guyenese landscape which appears in their work as a brooding presence affecting radically -the lives of those who live within i-t. Mittelholzer's attitude to his mixed racial and cultural origins, however, produces in his work a schizophrenic Imbalance while Harris, by accepting racial and cultural complexity as a starting-point, initiates a uniquely creative and experimental art. Mittelholzer, in his approach to history, human character eM landscape, remains a vi "coastal" writer never really concerned (as Harris is) with. the deeper significance of the "Interior" and all that this implies, both in a geographical and psychological sense. The fact that Mittelbolzer's work reflects a psychological imbalance induced by a pre-occupation with racial identity has been demonstrated by Denis Williams in the 1968 Mittelholzer Lectures, and by Joyce Sparer in a series of articles in the Guyana Graphic. Mittelholzer's awareness of this imbalance, however, and his attempt to come to terms with it in his art remain to be examined and documented, as does Harris's attempt to create am "associative" art aimed at healing the breach in the individual consciousness of Caribbean Man. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that Mitteholzer and. Harris, although antithetical in impact and style (each representing an approach to fiction directly opposed to the other) are, in fact, the opposite elements of a dichotomy. Their work illustrates the negative and positive aspects of the racial and cultural schizophrenia of the Caribbean, for both writers in their different ways are preoccupied with (and therefore have embodied in their work) the juxtaposition and, contrasting of apparently irreconcilable emotional and intellectual qualities - the Caribbean Syzygy

    Working in ministries or public organizations in Saudi Arabia : A study of career development and job satisfaction of the Saudi Arabian middle managers

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    Career development and job satisfaction studies carried out in developing countries are very limited in number. Saudi Arabia is one of those developing countries which appeared on the political scene quite recently, but striving hard to develop its human resources due to its heavy dependence on expatriate labour to initiate and execute its development plans. The genesis of the study began when General Civil Service Bureau officials noticed a large movement of employees from ministries to other sectors (i.e. public organizations and the private sector). The purpose of this dissertation is to examine and analyze the factors behind this movement and relate this to the studies of career development and job satisfaction. The position of government organizations in Saudi Arabia is rather unique. Most of their employees are drawn from Universities due to the regulations of the GCSB of compelling them to work in ministries for a period equivalent to that spent in their University education until graduation. This situation has prevented such graduates from choosing their own occupations and seem to hinder their career development. As a consequence, this study, not only analyzes career development and job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia, but (v) job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia, but also makes a comprehensive evaluation of economic, social and organisational environments which seem to have an effect of the occupational choice of the Saudis. We take the assumption that the ideology of free occupational choice is not properly applied in Saudi Arabia due to some cultural variables (e.g. nepotism and strong family ties). Hence, this thesis will develop a definition of the concept of occupational choice and career development and the process of personnel flow and the ways in which such movement can be influenced within the Saudi context. The study will be primarily concerned with middle managers in two types of organization - government ministries and public organizations. This will hopefully give a profile of the Saudi situation as far as occupational choice, career development and job satisfaction are concerned

    Botanical Journeys and China's Colonial Frontiers: 1840-1940

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    Over recent years, a body of scholarship has emerged on the topic of European and American travel writing in China. This thesis contributes to this growing field by examining four writers who travelled in China and worked as plant collectors and botanists. Largely forgotten today, these writers were influential and successful in their own day. Despite differences in geographical location and historical period, there are a number of common links that make a comparison of these travel writings productive. As travellers seeking botanical rarity and novelty, these writers explored regions of China unknown in the West, which over a period of one hundred years expanded outwards from the fringes of the treaty port areas to more remote regions of China's southwest. These writers, therefore, were on the frontiers of Western knowledge of China, and an examination of their writing provides important insights into the ways in which racial, geographical, and ecological differences were articulated and understood in the context of colonial and scientific exploration. While discussing how such differences have imperial significance, this study will also call attention to the instability of colonialist discourse in the context of China. Rather than focus exclusively on questions of imperialism, this study will show how representations of China's periphery regions also speak to metropolitan literary and cultural concerns, and a close reading of these travel writings shows that China offered powerful imaginary landscapes for home audiences. This project is organised chronologically and the chapters are divided according to the authors, with the exception of the first chapter where I introduce the historical and theoretical framework of the study and the final concluding chapter where I consider the significance of this study in the context of modern China

    In search of 'The people of La Manche': A comparative study of funerary practices in the Transmanche region during the late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (250BC-1500BC)

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    This research project sets out to discover whether archaeological evidence dating between 2500 BC - 1500 BC from supposed funerary contexts in Kent, flanders and north-eastern Transmanche France is sufficient to make valid comparisons between social and cultural structures on either side of the short-sea Channel region. Evidence from the beginning of the period primarily comes in the form of the widespread Beaker phenomenon. Chapter 5 shows that this class of data is abundant in Kent but quite sparse in the Continental zones - most probably because it has not survived well. This problem also affects the human depositional evidence catalogued in Chapter 6, particularly in Fanders but also in north-eastern Transmanche France. This constricts comparative analysis, however, the abundant data from Kent means that general trends are still discernible. The quality and volume of data relating to the distribution, location, morphology and use of circular monuments in all three zones is far better - as demonstrated in Chapter 7 -mostly due to extensive aerial surveying over several decades. When the datasets are taken as a whole, it becomes possible to successfully apply various forms of comparative analyses. Most remarkably, this has revealed that some monuments apparently have encoded within them a sophisticated and potentially symbolically charged geometric shape. This, along with other less contentious evidence, demonstrates a level of conformity that strongly suggests a stratum of cultural homogeneity existed throughout the Transmanche region during the period 2500 BC - 1500 BC. The fact that such changes as are apparent seem to have developed simultaneously in each of the zones adds additional weight to the theory that contact throughout the Transmanche region was endemic. Even so, it may not have been continuous; there may actually have been times of relative isolation - the data is simply too course to eliminate such a possibility

    Modificaciones de la variabilidad de la frecuencia card铆aca producidas en un modelo experimental de s铆ndrome metab贸lico

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    Antecedentes: El s铆ndrome metab贸lico (SM) se define como el conjunto de al menos tres de las siguientes condiciones: obesidad central, elevaci贸n de triglic茅ridos, disminuci贸n de lipoprote铆nas de alta densidad, hipertensi贸n sist茅mica e intolerancia a la glucosa. El SM est谩 relacionado con una alta prevalencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares, muerte s煤bita card铆aca y arritmias auriculares, eventos que pueden ser consecuencia de cambios relacionados con la estructura, funci贸n y control del coraz贸n. Uno de los mecanismos subyacentes podr铆a ser la alteraci贸n de la automaticidad del nodo sinusal por alteraciones del sistema nervioso aut贸nomo qu茅 pueden evaluarse analizando los componentes de la variabilidad de la frecuencia card铆aca (VFC). Objetivo: Examinar las modificaciones de la VFC, su evoluci贸n y su posible relaci贸n con los diferentes componentes del s铆ndrome metab贸lico en un modelo experimental en conejo, inducido por la administraci贸n de una dieta alta en grasa y az煤car. M茅todos: Se asignaron al azar conejos machos NZW al grupo control (n = 10) o al grupo SM (n = 10), alimentados con una dieta rica en grasas (10% de aceite de coco y 5% de manteca de cerdo) y alta en sacarosa (15% disuelta en agua). durante 28 semanas. Se registr贸 un ECG durante 15 minutos antes de la administraci贸n de la dieta, en las semanas 14 y 28. En la semana 28, se realiz贸 un registro de ECG de 24 horas (eMotion Faros 180, Mega Electronics庐, 1 kHz). Luego se aislaron estos corazones, se estabilizaron durante 15 minutos y se registraron electrogramas de 15 minutos de duraci贸n en un sistema de tipo Languendorff. Analizamos las oscilaciones RR in vivo de corta y larga duraci贸n, y en coraz贸n aislado, en los dominios del tiempo, la frecuencia y el an谩lisis no lineal. Para el an谩lisis estad铆stico se utiliz贸 el an谩lisis multivariado de varianza (MANOVA, modelo factorial) (p <0,05). Resultados an谩lisis de corta duraci贸n: El an谩lisis del dominio de la frecuencia de la VFC mostr贸 un aumento en el componente de HF en los animales con SM en la semana 28 (p 0,05) en MSE m铆nimo y m谩ximo, as铆 como en el CI1-20 con predominio en la semana 14. Los dem谩s par谩metros del an谩lisis no lineal no mostraron cambios estad铆sticamente significativos. Resultados an谩lisis de larga duraci贸n: El an谩lisis en el dominio del tiempo mostr贸 una disminuci贸n en el intervalo RR y el Ti geom茅trico (p>0,005) en animales con SM, indicativo de un aumento de la FC. El resto de par谩metros en el dominio del tiempo analizados no se modificaron. En el dominio de la frecuencia en el espectro FFT, encontramos una disminuci贸n significativa en la banda LF (p = 0.032) en animales SM. El resto de los par谩metros del dominio de la frecuencia (铆ndice VLF, HF y LF / HF) se mantuvo sin cambios. El an谩lisis de Poincar茅 mostr贸 un aumento del 铆ndice SD1 / SD2 en animales con SM durante el d铆a y la noche en comparaci贸n con los controles (p = 0.043). Adem谩s, encontramos una disminuci贸n de DFA伪1 (p = 0.021) y DFA伪2 (p = 0.002) en animales SM. Se encontr贸 la misma tendencia en MSEmax (p = 0.014) para el grupo SM. No se observaron cambios significativos en el resto de componentes de los an谩lisis no lineales. Resultados an谩lisis en coraz贸n aislado: En el dominio de la frecuencia, encontramos un aumento en el componente LF de VFC en animales con SM y la relaci贸n LF / HF (p <0.05), pero el resto de los par谩metros del dominio de la frecuencia permanecieron sin cambios. Con respecto al an谩lisis no lineal, la ApEn; (p <0.05) y el m铆nimo de entrop铆a multiescala (p <0.05) disminuy贸 en grupo SM. No se encontraron diferencias en ninguno de los par谩metros est谩ndar del dominio del tiempo. Conclusiones: El SM produjo cambios significativos en el an谩lisis de la VFC de corta duraci贸n, en el dominio del tiempo y la frecuencia, lo que sugiere aumento de la actividad simp谩tica y alteraci贸n barorefleja respectivamente, aspectos que podr铆an predisponer a un mayor riesgo cardiometabolico y muerte s煤bita. Con respecto al an谩lisis de larga duraci贸n observamos aumentos de la FC tanto en el dia como en la noche, lo que indica la perdida del equilibrio auton贸mico y se asocia a patrones arr铆tmicos. Adem谩s, el an谩lisis no lineal muestra una coactivaci贸n aleatoria y perdida del equilibrio simp谩tico-vagal, reflejado en el descenso de DFA伪-1, DFA伪-2, y la entrop铆a. Finalmente, el an谩lisis de la VFC en el coraz贸n aislado mostr贸 un descenso de la concentraci贸n espectral, indicativo de una mayor heterogeneidad de altas y bajas frecuencias y permiti贸 observar el aumento de la entrop铆a que apunta a una mayor irregularidad del control intr铆nseco cardiaco

    La inactividad de la Administraci贸n frente al "derecho a saber" del ciudadano = Adimistration's inaction against citizens' "right to know"

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    29 p谩ginasEs sabido que el silencio administrativo constituye una instituci贸n tuitiva ante el incumplimiento por la Administraci贸n p煤blica de su obligaci贸n de notificar resoluci贸n expresa en plazo en todo procedimiento administrativo. En la medida en que, o bien reconoce efectos desestimatorios a dicha inactividad formal 鈥攃on lo que el administrado puede acceder a la impugnaci贸n correspondiente鈥, o bien conlleva la estimaci贸n presunta de lo solicitado. Siendo este 煤ltimo, el silencio positivo en v铆a de petici贸n, el llamado a generalizarse en virtud de las 煤ltimas reformas, ligadas a la transposici贸n de la DS y su incidencia codificadora sobre nuestra LRJPAC. Aunque lo cierto es que, en este renovado escenario, el silencio negativo ha irrumpido en el 谩mbito de la transparencia. Como ya lo hizo, por cierto, en el r茅gimen autorizatorio urban铆stico, en un definitivo giro frente al silencio positivo contra legem. Previendo as铆 la LTAIPBG la des-estimaci贸n presunta para aquellas solicitudes de informaci贸n p煤blica que no sean contestadas en tiempo por la entidad u 贸rgano requerido. As铆 como para las reclamaciones no resueltas que se interpongan contra las resoluciones expresas o presuntas ante el Consejo de Transparencia y Buen GobiernoS

    La producci贸n de manuscritos iluminados en la Edad Media y su vinculaci贸n a las monarqu铆as hispanas

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    p. 37-52La producci贸n de manuscritos iluminados durante la Edad Media puede ser considerada como uno de los exponentes m谩s significativos de la creaci贸n art铆stica de la 茅poca. Una parte importante de los c贸dices ten铆an una funci贸n lit煤rgica y los destinatarios eran los centros religiosos, los cuales se ocupaban de su elaboraci贸n. Existe, sin embargo, en el 谩mbito hispano, un nutrido grupo de manuscritos que se vinculan directamente a la monarqu铆a,bien por el hecho de que los reyes hayan sido los comitente o promotores, bien por ser los destinatarios. En general se trata de obras muy cuidadas, que presentan una rica decoraci贸n y que constituyen una buena muestra de los gustos y del inter茅s de los monarcas hispanos por el libro; as铆, desde los reyes asturianos, hasta los Reyes Cat贸licos, pasando por figuras como Alfonso X el Sabio, se puede plantear una nueva visi贸n de la producci贸n de manuscritos medievales.S
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