17,860 research outputs found

    A mother of light in the age of Enlightenment: Heterodoxy, interiority, and epistemology in eighteenth-century New Spain

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    Colonial Mexico was a land steeped in Marian devotion, both to invocations brought from Europe and those arising locally. Into this Marian Zodiac of New Spain, Madre Santísima de la Luz entered in the early 18th century, and her devotion swiftly proliferated. The cult and image of this Most Holy Mother serve as an excellent case study to examine certain contentions in the age of Enlightenment, because just at the beginning of the period of contention, she burst into view in a blaze of light, proclaiming an alternate vision of a divine feminine, disciplined interiority, and knowledge as experience—alternate, that is, to the vision of enlightened reform and enlightened philosophy that was in process of taking root. In this dissertation, I examine these contentions of ideas and practices between what scholars have called traditional baroque devotion and both enlightened reform religiosity and the more radical enlightened philosophy. This examination is based on a study of the history, visual imagery, and iconography of Madre de la Luz; and of many texts, including devotionaries, treatises on mystical theology, artistic treatises, archival materials, council proceedings, and other resources. The areas of contention that I study are principally three: (1) heterodoxy; (2) interiority and exteriority; and (3) epistemology. In each of these areas, the image and cult of Madre de la Luz offer serious challenges to an orthodoxy that is established or is in process of being established. With regard to heterodoxy, they provide an alternate view to particular Catholic dogmas and religious attitudes. The challenge is made through the divine feminine redemptive force, blurring dogmatic options and tolerating ambiguity, that Madre represents. With regard to interiority and exteriority, they provide an alternate view to the newly developing orthodoxy of enlightened reform, with its preference for states of interiority intended to serve external useful ends and for the new bounded self. This challenge is made through a valuation of interiority for its own sake, tolerating a fluid self. With regard to epistemology, they provide an alternate view to the newly developing orthodoxy of the enlightened epistemology of disengaged study that claims dominance over an epistemology of direct experience. This challenge is made by proclaiming the value of the epistemology of experience, while appreciating the enlightened epistemology. Through the study of these contentions, the dissertation makes a number of claims as part of the extended scholarly project that contrasts ideas from the baroque and enlightened eras. It proposes that both the enlightened reformers of the late 18th century and modern scholars have misunderstood the roles of interior and exterior practices in both baroque Catholicism and enlightened reform Catholicism; thereby suggesting that we need to free ourselves from a reliance on enlightened reformers’ judgments, and attend to the teacher-practitioners of baroque religion themselves. Its more careful study of baroque devotional texts on Madre de la Luz (than any previous study), has identified intense interiorizing practices promoted within a context of exterior practices; thereby suggesting that we need to not only re-evaluate our understanding of the two Catholicisms, but also how we conceive of interiority, exteriority, and their interrelation. The dissertation gives voice to proponents of baroque interiorizing religion, a voice that has been hitherto poorly heard in the scholarly literature; and thus offers a more nuanced view of baroque interiorizing religious practice. It elaborates connections between iconography and devotional practice. It presents a comparative metaphorology of baroque and Enlightenment visual images, expanding the work of earlier scholars’ Enlightenment metaphorologies. It contrasts baroque epistemology of experience versus enlightened epistemology of disengaged study. It expands cases of particular doctrinal heterodoxies to express challenges against wider orthodoxies. Finally, as an undercurrent, it suggests first, the value of studying other religious systems (such as the religious philosophies of India) for understanding devotional religion in Mexico, and second, the importance of taking the researcher’s experience into account when doing historical research.LimitedAuthor requested closed access (OA after 2yrs) in Vireo ETD system; patron requested extension, effective 07-02-202

    Autobiographical subjects: Disability and social identity in life writing

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    This dissertation explores a period of rich interaction between fiction and life writing in the decades leading up to and immediately following the memoir boom of the 1990s and 2000s. Examining trends in subgenres of fictional and nonfictional life writing, including autobiography, the slave narrative, the Bildungsroman, diaries, and the family memoir, I argue that the contemporary cultural obsession with the autobiographical has made space for some underrepresented narratives while excluding others. I build on the scholarly tradition that links life writing to social justice movements, from abolitionism to disability rights, yet I show that life narratives that deviate from prescribed norms still often remain untold. Focusing on fictional and nonfictional narratives that feature opaque, fragmented, and absent autobiographical accounts by or about subjects with invisible forms of disability or cognitive difference, I argue that these works advocate for more flexible ways of understanding the relationship between autobiographical narration and social recognition. Chapter One considers the relationship between voice—as both an element of the physical body and a symbol of social identity—and autobiographical narration in J. M. Coetzee’s novel Foe (1986) and Samuel Beckett’s play Not I (1972), two works that feature characters with speech disorders. I argue that these works unsettle conceptions of personhood bound to a capacity for normative autobiographical narration. In Chapter Two, I analyze Elizabeth Bowen’s Eva Trout (1968) as an example of a Bildungsroman featuring a neurodivergent protagonist. While critics have tended to read the titular heroine as incomplete due to her linguistic and cognitive difference, I draw on the 1960s anti-psychiatry movement and contemporary discourses of neurodiversity to argue that the novel’s portrayal of Eva’s neurodivergent sensory relation to the world actually gestures toward her complex interiority. Chapter Three examines the private and public functions of life writing about mental illness and institutionalization, using May Sarton’s As We Are Now (1973) and Sebastian Barry’s The Secret Scripture (2008) to illustrate that institutional diary fiction frequently characterizes the practice of life writing as a form of personal therapy and the text itself as a means of engendering social change. In Chapter Four, my focus shifts to nonfictional life writing to address the lack of racial and economic diversity in autosomatography. Connecting Afro-pessimism to Jasbir Puar’s theory of debility, I read Saidiya Hartman’s Lose Your Mother (2007) and Jesmyn Ward’s Men We Reaped (2013) as exemplifying a trend away from redemptive arcs and toward portrayals of unresolved race- and class-based injury in memoirs published since 2005.LimitedAuthor requested closed access (OA after 2yrs) in Vireo ETD syste

    Religion, secularity, culture? : Investigating Christian privilege in Western Europe

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    Open access via Sage R&P agreement Acknowledgements I presented earlier versions of this article at the European Academy of Religion in March 2019, at an online workshop on Religion and Citizenship I co-organized with Simon Thompson and Francesca Raimondo in September 2020, at the Decolonizing Interfaith Studies Research Group at VU Amsterdam in March 2021, and at the Race Religion Constellation research group at Radboud University Nijmegen, where I discussed both earlier and later versions of this article. I am grateful to the participants in these discussions. I also want to thank Schirin Amir-Moazami, Brian Brock, Tamas Gyorfi, Nadia Kiwan, Tjeu Oomen, Bob Pease, Glen Scislowski, Anya Topolski, Fredericke Weiner, and the anonymous reviewers for their comments. Any errors are of course my own. Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research & Innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 754326.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Habilidades extrínsecas requeridas de engenheiros civis juniores para adesão ao mercado de trabalho: análise qualitativa

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    O mundo do trabalho busca cada vez mais profissionais que possuam uma formação expansiva e interessados em desenvolver as habilidades extrínsecas conhecidas também como soft skills. Esses profissionais precisam interagir com diversas áreas e situações que exijam soluções viáveis para garantir a sua imersão no mercado. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar as habilidades extrínsecas requeridas dos engenheiros civis juniores apontando uma maior aproximação com o cenário atual do mundo do trabalho e propiciando uma melhor capilaridade dos recém-formados no mercado. Para tanto, realizou-se a dupla linha metodológica, sendo estas a Revisão Sistemática da literatura e a pesquisa qualitativa linguística. Respectivamente, a linha metodológica trata os principais pontos relacionados analisando a produção científica acerca do tema e busca compreender o cenário atual por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas o que resultou na identificação das habilidades requeridas pelos contratantes de profissionais da engenharia, de acordo com as opiniões da base das entrevistas além das tendências futuras da área possibilitando a adesão dos engenheiros juniores ao mundo do trabalho

    Infrapolitika na kraju est-etike: o najnovijem delu Alberto Moreirasa

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    In this paper I will offer a reading of Alberto Moreiras’ recently published books, but within the context of his life’s work as a whole: which I will consider from the point of view of a questioning of the idea of the time/ history difference. After briefly tracing that overarching concern in his early work, I move to a consideration of a move away from Hegelianism in the more recent publications. This non-Hegelianism is not simply an anti-Hegelian stance. Understanding the difference will take us into the true dimension of infrapolitics. This aspect of Moreiras’ contribution to contemporary debates will be illustrated by way of his paradoxical and unrecognizable Antigone.U ovom radu ću ponuditi čitanje nedavno objavljenih knjiga Alberta Moreirasa, ali u kontekstu njegovog životnog dela u celini. Razmatraću njegovo delo sa stanovišta preispitivanja ideje razlike između vremena i istorije. Nakon kratkog osvrta na tu sveobuhvatnu tematiku njegovog ranog dela, preći ću na razmatranje udaljavanja od hegelijanstva u njegovim novijim publikacijama. Ovaj nehegelijanski stav nije samo antihegelijanski stav. Razumevanje ove razlike odvešć e nas u pravu dimenziju infrapolitike. Ovaj aspekt Moreirasovog doprinosa savremenim raspravama bić e ilustrovan njegovom paradoksalnom i neprepoznatljivom Antigonom

    Una habitación para ellas

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    A lo largo de este artículo, y a través del análisis de 35 obras de la literatura infantil estadounidense publicadas entre el 2000 y el 2021, se analizará la relación de los personajes femeninos con la lectura y el estudio. Se trata de obras premiadas, que han sido escritas por mujeres estadounidenses, que están destinadas a un público infantil y tienen protagonistas femeninas que son ávidas lectoras. Podremos concluir que, a través de la lectura, las niñas protagonistas de estos libros, conseguirán un espacio de emancipación, autoconocimiento y transformación de la realidad

    German Design Educators' Post-Covid Challenges: Online, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Government Data Restrictions

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    This research examines the experiences of German design educators during the Covid-19 pandemic and explores how these experiences influenced design education's transition to the online studio two years afterwards. The research is based on surveys of 33 German design educators who represent 18 higher education institutions (University/University of Applied Sciences) during the pandemic and 32 surveys and six follow up interviews two years later. This is the first study that focuses exclusively on design education in Germany by presenting a before-and-after contextual snapshot. The results present both positive and negative experiences of educators from a wide range of design domains. The ‘offshoring’ of the studio to Internet-based communication and file sharing platforms during the pandemic has profoundly altered the perceptions and practices of design educators in Germany, where governmental hurdles, such as data restriction laws, are blocking the full integration of online technology in design education. The findings focusing on German design educator experiences are presented within the context of their international colleagues' experiences from a study conducted earlier. This research also touches on the influence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the future of design education as well as a general trend to go offline by encouraging a back-to-campus policy

    From the exposed man to the exposed subject: the concept of interface in some strands of reflection on technique from the eighteenth century to Marcel Mauss

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    La nozione di ambiente non è una nozione recente. Al giorno d’oggi il riferimento all’ambiente compare in maniera sempre più diffusa nei dibattiti, nelle opere scientifiche e artistiche, negli spazi di divulgazione e sempre più entra all’interno degli spazi affettivi individuali e all’interno delle teorie e delle prassi politiche individuali e collettive. L’ambiente tanto entra nel campo assiologico, quanto vi entra come elemento fragile, indissociabile dall’azione antropica individuale e collettiva, attraverso ciò che noi riassumiamo con la nozione di crisi ambientale. La crisi ambientale permette di riaprire degli ambiti di valore e di interesse nel presente, allo stesso tempo provoca una reinterpretazione e un riorientamento delle teorie e delle prassi del passato. Dal nostro presente di crisi ambientale, è possibile rintracciare delle figure che, nel passato, hanno rappresentato l’inerenza degli enti con il loro ambiente e, tra questi, dell’uomo con il suo ambiente di vita. Sono due le principali figure attraverso le quali si intende riprendere un rapporto con il nostro passato letto attraverso la crisi ambientale: la figura dell’interfaccia come ciò che demarca un rapporto di inerenza e di separazione tra un interno e un esterno che hanno un rapporto tra loro necessario e tuttavia contingente, e la figura della relazione di “esposizione”, tramite la quale si vuole pensare a forme di soggettività vulnerabili, esposte alle relazioni e ai concatenamenti nei quali sono inserite e che tuttavia non possono che esporre a loro volta le altre soggettività e l’ambiente di vita comune a continue modificazioni. Tramite i concetti di interfaccia e di esposizione abbiamo potuto seguire il prodursi di forme di sapere relative all’inerenza tra forme e modi dell’interiorità rispetto all’ambiente che si sono prodotte nella storia e che sono emerse tramite la provocazione di un passato indotto dalla trasformazione che è il nostro presente di crisi ambientale.The notion of environment is not a recent notion. Nowadays the reference to the environment appears more and more widespread in debates, in scientific and artistic works, in popularization spaces and increasingly pervades individual affective spaces and individual and collective theories and political practices. As far as the environment enters the axiological field, it enters as a fragile element, inseparable from the individual and collective anthropic action, through what we summarize with the notion of environmental crisis. The environmental crisis allows to reopen areas of value and interest in the present, at the same time provoking a reinterpretation and a reorientation of past theories and practices. From today’s environmental crisis, it is possible to trace figures which, in the past, represented the relations of entities with their environment and, among them, of man with his living environment. Two are the main figures through which we intend to resume a relationship with our past read through the environmental crisis: 1) the figure of the “interface” as what demarcates a relationship of inherence and separation between an interior and an exterior, that remarks a relationship that is characterized by necessity but also by contingency; 2) the figure of the “exposure” relationship, through which we want to think about forms of vulnerable subjectivity, exposed to the relationships and to the chains in which subjects are inserted and which, in turn, they can expose to continuous modifications others subjects and the common living environment. Through the concepts of “interface” and “exposure” we have been able to follow the production of knowledge forms related to the inherence between interiority and the environment that have been produced in history and that have emerged through the provocation of a past induced by transformation that is today’s environmental crisis

    Epistemology in the _Mencius_

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    This chapter examines Mencius’s views on knowledge and how they might contribute to contemporary debates in epistemology. For this purpose, I focus on three features that I take to be characteristic (although not exhaustive) of Mencian epistemology: first, Mencius’s views on knowing things; second, the role that wisdom or intellectual virtue plays in acquiring knowledge; and third, Mencius’s views on “knowing-to”, a kind of knowledge conceptually distinct from knowing-that and knowing-how. I argue that the views we find in the Mencius on these matters are relevant to contemporary debates on the nature of objectual knowledge, on the role of intellectual virtue in knowing, and on the relation between know-how and intelligent action

    Ferramenta, retalho ou papel de parede: a música de catálogo na criação audiovisual online

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    Esta tese aborda a música de catálogo (conhecida internacionalmente como stock ou library music): faixas musicais compostas especificamente para uma futura utilização em produções audiovisuais, e apresentadas em catálogos sob categorias relativas a géneros musicais, emoções, instrumentação, entre outras. Embora a clientela desta indústria musical se limitasse inicialmente a profissionais do audiovisual, com o desenvolvimento de tecnologias digitais e das plataformas de partilha de vídeo da Web 2.0 afirma-se um novo mercado composto por videógrafos amadores e semiprofissionais. A música de catálogo representa então hoje uma atividade remunerada à qual um número significativo de compositores se dedica, bem como um recurso musical presente numa quantidade importante de audiovisuais. Adotando uma perspetiva interdisciplinar que conta com a sociologia da música nos seus alicerces teórico-metodológicos, proponho identificar as especificidades definidoras da música de catálogo, procurando compreender os padrões e convenções que fazem dela um mundo artístico próprio. Para explorar esta questão, parto de uma amostra de catálogos europeus e norte-americanos ativos nos últimos vinte anos. Com base em entrevistas a compositores e utilizadores de música de catálogo, bem como na análise de materiais publicitários e didáticos online a eles dirigidos, coloco em diálogo os pontos de vista de diversos agentes que interagem com esta música ao longo da sua produção, categorização ou utilização. O cruzamento de testemunhos de compositores situados em diferentes pontos do espectro desta indústria musical revela uma experiência heterogénea e multifacetada, complexificando assim retratos simplistas que predominam sobre a música de catálogo. Destaco também a relevância de examinar a música de catálogo como resultado da ação conjunta de indivíduos que intervêm de forma decisiva nos potenciais significados de uma faixa, seja através da sua etiquetagem, da sua alteração ou da sua inserção em novos contextos audiovisuais. Atender às perspetivas destes agentes permite demonstrar a importância do propósito de funcionalidade na música de catálogo: o facto de ser desde a sua génese concebida como música funcional destinada a audiovisuais é uma particularidade que governa não só as suas características sonoras como todo o seu percurso, desde a sua composição, categorização e promoção à sua modificação e articulação com imagens. Esse estatuto assumidamente utilitário constitui uma das propriedades específicas mais centrais à música de catálogo a partir da sua emergência na primeira metade do século XX. Desde então, esta age como um repositório das tendências e estereótipos musicais que marcam a produção cinematográfica e televisiva em determinado momento. Nesse sentido, os catálogos refletem e simultaneamente reforçam associações tipificadas entre música, imagens e narrativas que integram um vocabulário cultural amplamente partilhado. Para além de discernir velhos hábitos que se mantêm na produção e uso desta música, realço também novas dinâmicas e critérios que surgiram neste mundo artístico com a expansão de formatos digitais e da Web 2.0. Salienta-se nomeadamente a procura por faixas que possam ser desmontadas e rearranjadas o mais possível. Identifico assim um entendimento crescente da música de catálogo como uma matéria-prima que se encontraria incompleta até ao momento da sua transformação por outros agentes que não os seus compositores.This thesis focuses on library music (also known as stock or production music): tracks that are specifically composed for future use in audiovisual media, and categorized in catalogues according to musical genre, mood, instrumentation, among other possibilities. Although the client base of this music industry was initially limited to professional audiovisual creators, the growth of digital technologies and of Web 2.0’s video sharing platforms fostered a new market of amateur and semiprofessional videographers. Today, library music represents a source of income for a significant number of composers, as well as a musical resource extensively used in audiovisual productions. Departing from an interdisciplinary angle that counts the sociology of music as one of its theoretical and methodological foundations, I identify the essential specificities of library music, seeking a deeper understanding of the patterns and conventions that define it as a distinct art world. To examine this question, I focus on a sample of European and North-American libraries active in the last twenty years. Drawing from interviews to library music composers and users, as well as from an analysis of online promotional and instructional materials that address them, I inquire into the perspectives of various agents who interact with library music during its production, categorisation or usage. Observing the activity of composers who engage in a wide range of practices in this industry reveals their heterogeneous and multifaceted experience, emphasizing the need to move beyond the overly simplistic image of library music that is still prevalent today. I also stress the relevance of understanding this music as resulting from the joint action of individuals who intervene decisively in the possible meanings of a track, be it with its tagging, editing or inclusion in new audiovisual contexts. Comparing the discourses and viewpoints of these agents allows us to demonstrate the vital importance of the functional purpose that underlies library music: the fact that it is from the start conceived as functional music for media governs its sonic characteristics and composition, as well as its categorisation, promotion, modification and synchronisation with images. Library music’s explicitly utilitarian status has been central to its definition since its beginnings in the first half of the twentieth century. Since then, library music has acted as a repository of musical formulas that were commonplace in film and television productions in given moments. In that respect, libraries both reflect and simultaneously reinforce stereotyped associations between music, visuals and narratives that are part of a widely shared cultural vocabulary. In addition to ascertaining old habits that endure to the present day in the production and use of library music, I also shed light on new dynamics and criteria that have emerged in this art world with the expansion of digital formats and Web 2.0. Among these, I highlight the demand for tracks that can be deconstructed and rearranged as much as possible. I thus identify a growing understanding of library music as a raw material that is considered incomplete until its transformation and use by agents other than its composers
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