38,197 research outputs found

    GPCR-OKB: the G protein coupled receptor oligomer knowledge base

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    Rapid expansion of available data about G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) dimers/oligomers over the past few years requires an effective system to organize this information electronically. Based on an ontology derived from a community dialog involving colleagues using experimental and computational methodologies, we developed the GPCR-Oligomerization Knowledge Base (GPCR-OKB). GPCR-OKB is a system that supports browsing and searching for GPCR oligomer data. Such data were manually derived from the literature. While focused on GPCR oligomers, GPCR-OKB is seamlessly connected to GPCRDB, facilitating the correlation of information about GPCR protomers and oligomers

    On the hierarchical classification of G Protein-Coupled Receptors

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    Motivation: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an important role in many physiological systems by transducing an extracellular signal into an intracellular response. Over 50% of all marketed drugs are targeted towards a GPCR. There is considerable interest in developing an algorithm that could effectively predict the function of a GPCR from its primary sequence. Such an algorithm is useful not only in identifying novel GPCR sequences but in characterizing the interrelationships between known GPCRs. Results: An alignment-free approach to GPCR classification has been developed using techniques drawn from data mining and proteochemometrics. A dataset of over 8000 sequences was constructed to train the algorithm. This represents one of the largest GPCR datasets currently available. A predictive algorithm was developed based upon the simplest reasonable numerical representation of the protein's physicochemical properties. A selective top-down approach was developed, which used a hierarchical classifier to assign sequences to subdivisions within the GPCR hierarchy. The predictive performance of the algorithm was assessed against several standard data mining classifiers and further validated against Support Vector Machine-based GPCR prediction servers. The selective top-down approach achieves significantly higher accuracy than standard data mining methods in almost all cases

    Concepts of GPCR-controlled navigation in the immune system

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    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is essential for the spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics during immune responses. For efficient navigation through mammalian tissues, most leukocyte types express more than one GPCR on their surface and sense a wide range of chemokines and chemoattractants, leading to basic forms of leukocyte movement (chemokinesis, haptokinesis, chemotaxis, haptotaxis, and chemorepulsion). How leukocytes integrate multiple GPCR signals and make directional decisions in lymphoid and inflamed tissues is still subject of intense research. Many of our concepts on GPCR-controlled leukocyte navigation in the presence of multiple GPCR signals derive from in vitro chemotaxis studies and lower vertebrates. In this review, we refer to these concepts and critically contemplate their relevance for the directional movement of several leukocyte subsets (neutrophils, T cells, and dendritic cells) in the complexity of mouse tissues. We discuss how leukocyte navigation can be regulated at the level of only a single GPCR (surface expression, competitive antagonism, oligomerization, homologous desensitization, and receptor internalization) or multiple GPCRs (synergy, hierarchical and non-hierarchical competition, sequential signaling, heterologous desensitization, and agonist scavenging). In particular, we will highlight recent advances in understanding GPCR-controlled leukocyte navigation by intravital microscopy of immune cells in mice

    The G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer network (GPCR-HetNet) and its hub components

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    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization has emerged as a vital characteristic of receptor structure. Substantial experimental evidence supports the existence of GPCR-GPCR interactions in a coordinated and cooperative manner. However, despite the current development of experimental techniques for large-scale detection of GPCR heteromers, in order to understand their connectivity it is necessary to develop novel tools to study the global heteroreceptor networks. To provide insight into the overall topology of the GPCR heteromers and identify key players, a collective interaction network was constructed. Experimental interaction data for each of the individual human GPCR protomers was obtained manually from the STRING and SCOPUS databases. The interaction data were used to build and analyze the network using Cytoscape software. The network was treated as undirected throughout the study. It is comprised of 156 nodes, 260 edges and has a scale-free topology. Connectivity analysis reveals a significant dominance of intrafamily versus interfamily connections. Most of the receptors within the network are linked to each other by a small number of edges. DRD2, OPRM, ADRB2, AA2AR, AA1R, OPRK, OPRD and GHSR are identified as hubs. In a network representation 10 modules/clusters also appear as a highly interconnected group of nodes. Information on this GPCR network can improve our understanding of molecular integration. GPCR-HetNet has been implemented in Java and is freely available at http://www.iiia.csic.es/similar to ismel/GPCR-Nets/index.html

    GPCRTree: online hierarchical classification of GPCR function

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    Background: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important physiological roles transducing extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Approximately 50% of all marketed drugs target a GPCR. There remains considerable interest in effectively predicting the function of a GPCR from its primary sequence. Findings: Using techniques drawn from data mining and proteochemometrics, an alignment-free approach to GPCR classification has been devised. It uses a simple representation of a protein's physical properties. GPCRTree, a publicly-available internet server, implements an algorithm that classifies GPCRs at the class, sub-family and sub-subfamily level. Conclusion: A selective top-down classifier was developed which assigns sequences within a GPCR hierarchy. Compared to other publicly available GPCR prediction servers, GPCRTree is considerably more accurate at every level of classification. The server has been available online since March 2008 at URL: http://igrid-ext.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/gpcrtree

    Deconvolution of complex G protein-coupled receptor signaling in live cells using dynamic mass redistribution measurements

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    Label-free biosensor technology based on dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) of cellular constituents promises to translate GPCR signaling into complex optical 'fingerprints' in real time in living cells. Here we present a strategy to map cellular mechanisms that define label-free responses, and we compare DMR technology with traditional second-messenger assays that are currently the state of the art in GPCR drug discovery. The holistic nature of DMR measurements enabled us to (i) probe GPCR functionality along all four G-protein signaling pathways, something presently beyond reach of most other assay platforms; (ii) dissect complex GPCR signaling patterns even in primary human cells with unprecedented accuracy; (iii) define heterotrimeric G proteins as triggers for the complex optical fingerprints; and (iv) disclose previously undetected features of GPCR behavior. Our results suggest that DMR technology will have a substantial impact on systems biology and systems pharmacology as well as for the discovery of drugs with novel mechanisms

    Downregulation of thromboxane A2 and angiotensin II type 1 receptors associated with aging-related decrease in internal anal sphincter tone.

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    Aging-associated decrease in internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone (AADI) is a major contributor in the rectoanal incontinence (RI). To determine the pathogenesis of AADI, we investigated the effect of aging on GPCR activation and related downstream signaling. We particularly investigated two GPCRs that characterize IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs): thromboxane A 2 and angiotensin II type 1. Two groups of Fischer 344 rats (6-month-old [young group] and 26-month-old [old group]) were employed to determine the GPCR function by isometric contraction, the expressions of GPCRs, and their downstream regulatory signaling proteins (regulator of G-protein signaling 2, RGS2; GPCR Kinase 5, GRK5; and ╬▓-arrestin, Arrb2) using RT-PCR, qPCR, and western blot analyses. We used reversible biotinylation to monitor the GPCR trafficking using SMCs. Aging selectively attenuated thromboxane A 2 and Ang II-induced IAS contraction. RT-PCR, qPCR, and WB data revealed a significant decrease in the expressions of the GPCRs and increase in the expression of RGS2, GRK5, and Arrb2. The increased GPCR internalization and decreased recycling under aging were validated by reversible biotinylation. We conclude that downregulation of GPCR, accompanied by upregulation of regulatory proteins, plays an important role in receptor desensitization and may be important underlying mechanisms of RI in certain aging patients

    Structural and Functional Analysis of a ╬▓2-Adrenergic Receptor Complex with GRK5.

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    The phosphorylation of agonist-occupied G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) functions to turn off G-protein signaling and turn on arrestin-mediated signaling. While a structural understanding of GPCR/G-protein and GPCR/arrestin complexes has emerged in recent years, the molecular architecture of a GPCR/GRK complex remains poorly defined. We used a comprehensive integrated approach of cross-linking, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS), electron microscopy, mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulations, and computational docking to analyze GRK5 interaction with the ╬▓2-adrenergic receptor (╬▓2AR). These studies revealed a dynamic mechanism of complex formation that involves large conformational changes in the GRK5 RH/catalytic domain interface upon receptor binding. These changes facilitate contacts between intracellular loops 2 and 3 and the C terminus of the ╬▓2AR with the GRK5 RH bundle subdomain, membrane-binding surface, and kinase catalytic cleft, respectively. These studies significantly contribute to our understanding of the mechanism by which GRKs regulate the function of activated GPCRs. PAPERCLIP
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