69,554 research outputs found

    Efficient inference in the transverse field Ising model

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    In this paper we introduce an approximate method to solve the quantum cavity equations for transverse field Ising models. The method relies on a projective approximation of the exact cavity distributions of imaginary time trajectories (paths). A key feature, novel in the context of similar algorithms, is the explicit separation of the classical and quantum parts of the distributions. Numerical simulations show accurate results in comparison with the sampled solution of the cavity equations, the exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian (when possible) and other approximate inference methods in the literature. The computational complexity of this new algorithm scales linearly with the connectivity of the underlying lattice, enabling the study of highly connected networks, as the ones often encountered in quantum machine learning problems

    MAS: A versatile Landau-fluid eigenvalue code for plasma stability analysis in general geometry

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    We have developed a new global eigenvalue code, Multiscale Analysis for plasma Stabilities (MAS), for studying plasma problems with wave toroidal mode number n and frequency omega in a broad range of interest in general tokamak geometry, based on a five-field Landau-fluid description of thermal plasmas. Beyond keeping the necessary plasma fluid response, we further retain the important kinetic effects including diamagnetic drift, ion finite Larmor radius, finite parallel electric field, ion and electron Landau resonances in a self-consistent and non-perturbative manner without sacrificing the attractive efficiency in computation. The physical capabilities of the code are evaluated and examined in the aspects of both theory and simulation. In theory, the comprehensive Landau-fluid model implemented in MAS can be reduced to the well-known ideal MHD model, electrostatic ion-fluid model, and drift-kinetic model in various limits, which clearly delineates the physics validity regime. In simulation, MAS has been well benchmarked with theory and other gyrokinetic and kinetic-MHD hybrid codes in a manner of adopting the unified physical and numerical framework, which covers the kinetic Alfven wave, ion sound wave, low-n kink, high-n ion temperature gradient mode and kinetic ballooning mode. Moreover, MAS is successfully applied to model the Alfven eigenmode (AE) activities in DIII-D discharge #159243, which faithfully captures the frequency sweeping of RSAE, the tunneling damping of TAE, as well as the polarization characteristics of KBAE and BAAE being consistent with former gyrokinetic theory and simulation. With respect to the key progress contributed to the community, MAS has the advantage of combining rich physics ingredients, realistic global geometry and high computation efficiency together for plasma stability analysis in linear regime.Comment: 40 pages, 21 figure

    Resource-efficient high-dimensional entanglement detection via symmetric projections

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    We introduce two families of criteria for detecting and quantifying the entanglement of a bipartite quantum state of arbitrary local dimension. The first is based on measurements in mutually unbiased bases and the second is based on equiangular measurements. Both criteria give a qualitative result in terms of the state's entanglement dimension and a quantitative result in terms of its fidelity with the maximally entangled state. The criteria are universally applicable since no assumptions on the state are required. Moreover, the experimenter can control the trade-off between resource-efficiency and noise-tolerance by selecting the number of measurements performed. For paradigmatic noise models, we show that only a small number of measurements are necessary to achieve nearly-optimal detection in any dimension. The number of global product projections scales only linearly in the local dimension, thus paving the way for detection and quantification of very high-dimensional entanglement.Comment: 6+2 page

    Quantum Mechanics Lecture Notes. Selected Chapters

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    These are extended lecture notes of the quantum mechanics course which I am teaching in the Weizmann Institute of Science graduate physics program. They cover the topics listed below. The first four chapter are posted here. Their content is detailed on the next page. The other chapters are planned to be added in the coming months. 1. Motion in External Electromagnetic Field. Gauge Fields in Quantum Mechanics. 2. Quantum Mechanics of Electromagnetic Field 3. Photon-Matter Interactions 4. Quantization of the Schr\"odinger Field (The Second Quantization) 5. Open Systems. Density Matrix 6. Adiabatic Theory. The Berry Phase. The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation 7. Mean Field Approaches for Many Body Systems -- Fermions and Boson

    Barren plateaus in quantum tensor network optimization

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    We analyze the barren plateau phenomenon in the variational optimization of quantum circuits inspired by matrix product states (qMPS), tree tensor networks (qTTN), and the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (qMERA). We consider as the cost function the expectation value of a Hamiltonian that is a sum of local terms. For randomly chosen variational parameters we show that the variance of the cost function gradient decreases exponentially with the distance of a Hamiltonian term from the canonical centre in the quantum tensor network. Therefore, as a function of qubit count, for qMPS most gradient variances decrease exponentially and for qTTN as well as qMERA they decrease polynomially. We also show that the calculation of these gradients is exponentially more efficient on a classical computer than on a quantum computer

    Optimal Control of the Landau-de Gennes Model of Nematic Liquid Crystals

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    We present an analysis and numerical study of an optimal control problem for the Landau-de Gennes (LdG) model of nematic liquid crystals (LCs), which is a crucial component in modern technology. They exhibit long range orientational order in their nematic phase, which is represented by a tensor-valued (spatial) order parameter Q=Q(x)Q = Q(x). Equilibrium LC states correspond to QQ functions that (locally) minimize an LdG energy functional. Thus, we consider an L2L^2-gradient flow of the LdG energy that allows for finding local minimizers and leads to a semi-linear parabolic PDE, for which we develop an optimal control framework. We then derive several a priori estimates for the forward problem, including continuity in space-time, that allow us to prove existence of optimal boundary and external ``force'' controls and to derive optimality conditions through the use of an adjoint equation. Next, we present a simple finite element scheme for the LdG model and a straightforward optimization algorithm. We illustrate optimization of LC states through numerical experiments in two and three dimensions that seek to place LC defects (where Q(x)=0Q(x) = 0) in desired locations, which is desirable in applications.Comment: 26 pages, 9 figure

    Nonstationary Fractionally Integrated Functional Time Series

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    We study a functional version of nonstationary fractionally integrated time series, covering the functional unit root as a special case. The time series taking values in an infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert space are projected onto a finite number of sub-spaces, the level of nonstationarity allowed to vary over them. Under regularity conditions, we derive a weak convergence result for the projection of the fractionally integrated functional process onto the asymptotically dominant sub-space, which retains most of the sample information carried by the original functional time series. Through the classic functional principal component analysis of the sample variance operator, we obtain the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions which span a sample version of the dominant sub-space. Furthermore, we introduce a simple ratio criterion to consistently estimate the dimension of the dominant sub-space, and use a semiparametric local Whittle method to estimate the memory parameter. Monte-Carlo simulation studies are given to examine the finite-sample performance of the developed techniques

    Kurcuma: a kitchen utensil recognition collection for unsupervised domain adaptation

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    The use of deep learning makes it possible to achieve extraordinary results in all kinds of tasks related to computer vision. However, this performance is strongly related to the availability of training data and its relationship with the distribution in the eventual application scenario. This question is of vital importance in areas such as robotics, where the targeted environment data are barely available in advance. In this context, domain adaptation (DA) techniques are especially important to building models that deal with new data for which the corresponding label is not available. To promote further research in DA techniques applied to robotics, this work presents Kurcuma (Kitchen Utensil Recognition Collection for Unsupervised doMain Adaptation), an assortment of seven datasets for the classification of kitchen utensils—a task of relevance in home-assistance robotics and a suitable showcase for DA. Along with the data, we provide a broad description of the main characteristics of the dataset, as well as a baseline using the well-known domain-adversarial training of neural networks approach. The results show the challenge posed by DA on these types of tasks, pointing to the need for new approaches in future work.Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer Nature. This work was supported by the I+D+i project TED2021-132103A-I00 (DOREMI), funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. Some of the computing resources were provided by the Generalitat Valenciana and the European Union through the FEDER funding program (IDIFEDER/2020/003). The second author is supported by grant APOSTD/2020/256 from “Programa I+D+i de la Generalitat Valenciana”

    Full trajectory optimizing operator inference for reduced-order modeling using differentiable programming

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    Accurate and inexpensive Reduced Order Models (ROMs) for forecasting turbulent flows can facilitate rapid design iterations and thus prove critical for predictive control in engineering problems. Galerkin projection based Reduced Order Models (GP-ROMs), derived by projecting the Navier-Stokes equations on a truncated Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) basis, are popular because of their low computational costs and theoretical foundations. However, the accuracy of traditional GP-ROMs degrades over long time prediction horizons. To address this issue, we extend the recently proposed Neural Galerkin Projection (NeuralGP) data driven framework to compressibility-dominated transonic flow, considering a prototypical problem of a buffeting NACA0012 airfoil governed by the full Navier-Stokes equations. The algorithm maintains the form of the ROM-ODE obtained from the Galerkin projection; however coefficients are learned directly from the data using gradient descent facilitated by differentiable programming. This blends the strengths of the physics driven GP-ROM and purely data driven neural network-based techniques, resulting in a computationally cheaper model that is easier to interpret. We show that the NeuralGP method minimizes a more rigorous full trajectory error norm compared to a linearized error definition optimized by the calibration procedure. We also find that while both procedures stabilize the ROM by displacing the eigenvalues of the linear dynamics matrix of the ROM-ODE to the complex left half-plane, the NeuralGP algorithm adds more dissipation to the trailing POD modes resulting in its better long-term performance. The results presented highlight the superior accuracy of the NeuralGP technique compared to the traditional calibrated GP-ROM method
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