29,120 research outputs found

    An Egyptian\u27s Best Friend? An Analysis and Discussion of the Depiction of the Domestic Dog in Ancient Egypt

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    Domestic dogs in ancient Egypt have rarely recieved attention from the Egyptological community. They have been perceived as pets, hunting dogs, guard dogs, or sacred animals. The modern connotations of pet-keeping have been imposed onto them, with little evidence. Their function or meaning to the ancient Egyptians has rarely been questioned. Evidence of the dog in ancient Egypt appears as early as the Predynastic period and as late as the Roman era. Images of dogs appears in tombs, temples, and on artifacts. Dog burials have also been perserved, and they have been referenced in Egyptian and Classical textual sources. This thesis collects all available iconographic examples of the dog in ancient Egypt and evaluates the data to create a basis for a critical analysis of the function(s) of the dog. Did the domestic dog serve a symbolic purpose(s) to the ancient Egyptians, or were they merely valued as lifelong companions

    Collapse of an ecological network in Ancient Egypt

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    The dynamics of ecosystem collapse are fundamental to determining how and why biological communities change through time, as well as the potential effects of extinctions on ecosystems. Here we integrate depictions of mammals from Egyptian antiquity with direct lines of paleontological and archeological evidence to infer local extinctions and community dynamics over a 6000-year span. The unprecedented temporal resolution of this data set enables examination of how the tandem effects of human population growth and climate change can disrupt mammalian communities. We show that the extinctions of mammals in Egypt were nonrandom, and that destabilizing changes in community composition coincided with abrupt aridification events and the attendant collapses of some complex societies. We also show that the roles of species in a community can change over time, and that persistence is predicted by measures of species sensitivity, a function of local dynamic stability. Our study is the first high-resolution analysis of the ecological impacts of environmental change on predator-prey networks over millennial timescales, and sheds light on the historical events that have shaped modern animal communities

    Performance analysis of anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA using the ROC curve for screening of anaplasmosis in camel populations in Egypt

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    Anaplasmosis is a tick-born and potential zoonotic disease caused by Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. platys and A. capra. Anaplasma marginale affecting bovines and camels causing significant economic losses. Camels as an integral part of the socio-economic lifestyle of nomads in semi-arid to arid ecosystems are prone to suffer from subclinical Anaplasma infections. This study aimed to determine the performance and adaptation of commercial competitive Anaplasma ELISA (cELISA) as a tool for screening the seroprevalence of anaplasmosis whitin the camel populations in Egypt. This study was based on the serological investigation of 437 camel sera collected between 2015 and 2016 during a Q fever prevalence study in Egypt using commercially available cELISA for the detection of antibodies specific for Anaplasma in bovine serum. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, an analysis method for optimizing cutoff values in cELISAs, was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity using 76 true as serological positive (n = 7) and negative (n = 60) for Anaplasma antibodies. ROC curve analysis was done for 7 true positive and 60 true negative bovine samples and 7 true positive and 29 true negative camel samples serum. Real time PCR and/or conventional PCR was applied to confirm Anaplasma spp. specific-DNA in camel serum as an indication of a true positive and true negative for ROC analysis. Chi square analysis was performed to estimate the association between risk factors and anaplasmosis in camels. The cutoff value was determined as 0.42 (p value ≤ 0.001). Data simulation with randomly generated values revealed a cutoff value of 0.417 (p ≤ 0.001) with resulting 58.1% Se and 97.8% Sp. Seven true positive and 29 true negative camel serum samples was confirmed by PCR. Using the estimated cut off, the seroprevalence in the Nile Valley and Delta and the Eastern Desert domain was 47.4% and 46.4%, respectively. The potential risk factors as domains and origin of animals were less significantly associated with the prevalence of anaplasmosis (domains: χ(2) = 41.8, p value ≤ 0.001 and origin: χ(2) = 42.56, p value ≤ 0.001). Raising awareness especially for veterinarians and animal owners will significantly contribute to the best understanding of anaplasmosis in camels in Egypt. Alternative (in silico) validation techniques and preliminary prevalence studies are mandatory towards the control of neglected anaplasmosis in the camel population
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