734,584 research outputs found

    Circulating cell death products predict clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients.

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    BackgroundTumor cell death generates products that can be measured in the circulation of cancer patients. CK18-Asp396 (M30 antigen) is a caspase-degraded product of cytokeratin 18 (CK18), produced by apoptotic epithelial cells, and is elevated in breast and lung cancer patients.MethodsWe determined the CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels in plasma of 49 colorectal cancer patients, before and after surgical resection of the tumor, by ELISA. Correlations with patient and tumor characteristics were determined by Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. Disease-free survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier methodology with Log Rank tests, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis.ResultsPlasma CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels in colorectal cancer patients were related to disease stage and tumor diameter, and were predictive of disease-free survival, independent of disease-stage, with hazard ratios (HR) of patients with high levels (> median) compared to those with low levels (< or = median) of 3.58 (95% CI: 1.17-11.02) and 3.58 (95% CI: 0.97-7.71), respectively. The CK18-Asp396/CK18 ratio, which decreased with tumor progression, was also predictive of disease-free survival, with a low ratio (< or = median) associated with worse disease-free survival: HR 2.78 (95% CI: 1.06-7.19). Remarkably, the plasma CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels after surgical removal of the tumor were also predictive of disease-free survival, with patients with high levels having a HR of 3.78 (95% CI: 0.77-18.50) and 4.12 (95% CI: 0.84-20.34), respectively, indicating that these parameters can be used also to monitor patients after surgery.ConclusionCK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels in the circulation of colorectal cancer patients are predictive of tumor progression and prognosis and might be helpful for treatment selection and monitoring of these patients

    Interventions for the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers: surgical treatment.

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    BACKGROUND: Surgery is an important part of the management of oral cavity cancer with regard to both the removal of the primary tumour and removal of lymph nodes in the neck. Surgery is less frequently used in oropharyngeal cancer. Surgery alone may be treatment for early stage disease or surgery may be used in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy/biotherapy. There is variation in the recommended timing and extent of surgery in the overall treatment regimens of people with these cancers. OBJECTIVES: To determine which surgical treatment modalities for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers result in increased overall survival, disease free survival, progression free survival and reduced recurrence. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 February 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 17 February 2011) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 17 February 2011). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials where more than 50% of participants had primary tumours of the oral cavity or oropharynx, and which compared two or more surgical treatment modalities or surgery versus other treatment modalities. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias was undertaken independently by two or more review authors. Study authors were contacted for additional information as required. Adverse events data were collected from published trials. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials (n = 669; 667 with cancers of the oral cavity) satisfied the inclusion criteria, but none were assessed as low risk of bias. Trials were grouped into three main comparisons. Four trials compared elective neck dissection (ND) with therapeutic neck dissection in patients with oral cavity cancer and clinically negative neck nodes, but differences in type of surgery and duration of follow-up made meta-analysis inappropriate. Three of these trials reported overall and disease free survival. One trial showed a benefit for elective supraomohyoid neck dissection compared to therapeutic ND in overall and disease free survival. Two trials found no difference between elective radical ND and therapeutic ND for the outcomes of overall survival and disease free survival. All four trials found reduced locoregional recurrence following elective ND.A further two trials compared elective radical ND with elective selective ND and found no difference in overall survival, disease free survival or recurrence. The final trial compared surgery plus radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone but data were unreliable because the trial stopped early and there were multiple protocol violations.None of the trials reported quality of life as an outcome. Two trials, evaluating different comparisons reported adverse effects of treatment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Seven included trials evaluated neck dissection surgery in patients with oral cavity cancers. The review found weak evidence that elective neck dissection of clinically negative neck nodes at the time of removal of the primary tumour results in reduced locoregional recurrence, but there is insufficient evidence to conclude that elective neck dissection increases overall survival or disease free survival compared to therapeutic neck dissection. There is very weak evidence from one trial that elective supraomohyoid neck dissection may be associated with increased overall and disease free survival. There is no evidence that radical neck dissection increases overall survival compared to conservative neck dissection surgery. Reporting of adverse events in all trials was poor and it was not possible to compare the quality of life of patients undergoing different surgeries

    Tumour-derived alkaline phosphatase regulates tumour growth, epithelial plasticity and disease-free survival in metastatic prostate cancer

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    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that bone-related parameters are the main prognostic factors for overall survival in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), with elevated circulating levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) thought to reflect the dysregulated bone formation accompanying distant metastases. We have identified that PCa cells express ALPL, the gene that encodes for tissue nonspecific ALP, and hypothesised that tumour-derived ALPL may contribute to disease progression. METHODS: Functional effects of ALPL inhibition were investigated in metastatic PCa cell lines. ALPL gene expression was analysed from published PCa data sets, and correlated with disease-free survival and metastasis. RESULTS: ALPL expression was increased in PCa cells from metastatic sites. A reduction in tumour-derived ALPL expression or ALP activity increased cell death, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and reduced migration. Alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased by the EMT repressor Snail. In men with PCa, tumour-derived ALPL correlated with EMT markers, and high ALPL expression was associated with a significant reduction in disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies reveal the function of tumour-derived ALPL in regulating cell death and epithelial plasticity, and demonstrate a strong association between ALPL expression in PCa cells and metastasis or disease-free survival, thus identifying tumour-derived ALPL as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of PCa progression.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 22 December 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.402 www.bjcancer.com

    Disease course, frequency of relapses and survival of 73 patients with juvenile or adult dermatomyositis

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    Objective Our aim is to present the disease course, frequency of relapses and survival of juvenile and adult dermatomyositis (JDM/DM) patients. Methods Analysis was performed using data on 73 patients. The median follow-up for 38 JDM patients was 32 months and 78 months for 35 adult DM patients. Results 23/38 JDM patients (60%) had monophasic, 12/38 (31.6%) had polycyclic and 3138 (7.9%) had chronic disease. Among children treated only with glucocorticoids, 12/20 (60%) had monophasic and 8/20 (40%) had polycyclic disease. 10/17 (58.8%) children, who required second-line immunosuppressive agents, had monophasic and 4/17 (23.5%) had polycyclic disease. 18/35 DM (51.4%) patients had monophasic, 13/35 (37.1%) had polycyclic, 1/35 (2.9%) had chronic disease and 3135 (8.6%) had fulminant myositis. Among DM patients requiring only glucocorticoids, 12/20 (60%) were monophasic and 8/20 (40%) were polycyclic. In patients requiring second-line immunosuppressive agents, 6/15 patients (40%) had monophasic and 5/15 (33.3%) had polycyclic disease. Among patients with polycyclic disease, the risk of relapse was higher during first year than later in the disease course. None of the JDM patients have died, while 4 disease-specific deaths occurred in adult patients. There was no significant difference between the survival of JDM and DM patients. Discussion There was no correlation between relapse-free survival and the initial therapeutic regimen. Many of our patients had polycyclic or chronic disease. As relapses can occur after a prolonged disease-free interval, patients should be followed for at least 2 years. Although we found a favourable survival rate, further investigations are needed to assess functional outcome

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma behaves as a distinct clinical entity with good outcome: evidence from 14-year followup in the West of Scotland Cancer Network

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    Clinically and biologically, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) has much more in common with germinal-center derived B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) than with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Management of NLPHL remains controversial. In a 14-year multicenter series, 69 cases were analyzed, and the median follow-up was 53 months (range 11‚Äď165.) B-symptoms were present in only 4.3% of patients, and 81.1% of patients had stage I/II disease. Treatment was with radiotherapy (53.6%), chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality (17.4%), and observation (7.2%). In all, 10.1% of patients relapsed and 2.9% of patients developed high-grade transformation to DLBCL. All relapses and transformations were salvageable. No patient died of their disease. The 5-year relapse-free survival was 92%, transformation-free survival 98.4%, and overall survival 100%. We conclude that NLPHL behaves as a distinct clinical entity, often presenting at an early stage without risk factors. It has an excellent outcome. It may be possible, in early-stage disease, to reduce the intensity of therapy in NLPHL, to single-modality radiotherapy, without affecting OS

    The next steps in improving the outcomes of advanced ovarian cancer

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    Worldwide ovarian cancer affects over 200,000 women per year. Overall survival rates are poor due to two predominate reasons. First, the majority of patients present with advanced disease creating significant difficulty with effecting disease eradication. Second, acquisition of chemotherapy resistance results in untreatable progressive disease. Advances in treatment of advanced ovarian cancer involve a spectrum of interventions including improvements in frontline debulking surgery and combination chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenic factors have been shown to have activity in frontline and recurrent disease while novel chemotherapeutic agents and targeted treatments are in development particularly for disease that is resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. These developments aim to improve the progression-free and overall survival of women with advanced ovarian cancer

    Para-aortic node involvement is not an independent predictor of survival after resection for pancreatic cancer

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    AIM To analyze the importance of para-aortic node status in a series of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in a single Institution. METHODS Between January 2000 and December 2012, 151 patients underwent PD with para-aortic node dissection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma in our Institution. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with negative PALNs (PALNs-), and patients with metastatic PALNs (PALNs+). Pathologic factors, including stage, nodal status, number of positive nodes and lymph node ratio, invasion of para-aortic nodes, tumor\u2019s grading, and radicality of resection were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. Survival curves were constructed with Kaplan-Meier method and compared with Log-rank test: significance was considered as P < 0.05. RESULTS A total of 107 patients (74%) had nodal metastases. Median number of pathologically assessed lymph nodes was 26 (range 14-63). Twenty-five patients (16.5%) had para-aortic lymph node involvement. Thirty-three patients (23%) underwent R1 pancreatic resection. One-hundred forty-one patients recurred and died for tumor recurrence, one is alive with recurrence, and 9 are alive and free of disease. Overall survival was significantly influenced by grading (P = 0.0001), radicality of resection (P = 0.001), stage (P = 0.03), lymph node status (P = 0.04), para-aortic nodes metastases (P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that grading was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.0001), while grading (P = 0.0001) and radicality of resection (P = 0.01) were prognostic parameters for disease-free survival. Number of metastatic nodes, node ratio, and para-aortic nodes involvement were not independent predictors of disease-free and overall survival. CONCLUSION In this experience, lymph node status and para-aortic node metastases were associated with poor survival at univariate analysis, but they were not independent prognostic factors

    The role of different adjuvant therapies in locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma

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    Complete surgical resection remains the only curative treatment option in locally advanced gastric cancer (GC). Several studies were conducted to prevent local recurrence and to increase the chance of cure. The aim of this study was to summarize our experience in locally advanced GC patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to evaluate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity rate and compliance to treatment

    Resection of the liver for colorectal carcinoma metastases - A multi-institutional study of long-term survivors

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    In this review of a collected series of patients undergoing hepatic resection for colorectal metastases, 100 patients were found to have survived greater than five years from the time of resection. Of these 100 long-term survivors, 71 remain disease-free through the last follow-up, 19 recurred prior to five years, and ten recurred after five years. Patient characteristics that may have contributed to survival were examined. Procedures performed included five trisegmentectomies, 32 lobectomies, 16 left lateral segmentectomies, and 45 wedge resections. The margin of resection was recorded in 27 patients, one of whom had a positive margin, nine of whom had a less than or equal to 1-cm margin, and 17 of whom had a greater than 1-cm margin. Eighty-one patients had a solitary metastasis to the liver, 11 patients had two metastases, one patient had three metastases, and four patients had four metastases. Thirty patients had Stage C primary carcinoma, 40 had Stage B primary carcinoma, and one had Stage A primarycarcinoma. The disease-free interval from the time of colon resection to the time of liver resection was less than one year in 65 patients, and greater than one year in 34 patients. Three patients had bilobar metastases. Four of the patients had extrahepatic disease resected simultaneously with the liver resection. Though several contraindications to hepatic resection have been proposed in the past, five-year survival has been found in patients with extrahepatic disease resected simultaneously, patients with bilobar metastases, patients with multiple metastases, and patients with positive margins. Five-year disease-free survivors are also present in each of these subsets. It is concluded that five-year survival is possible in the presence of reported contraindications to resection, and therefore that the decision to resect the liver must be individualized. © 1988 American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

    A phase II study of capecitabine and oxalplatin combination chemotherapy in patients with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder or biliary tract

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    Background: Advanced biliary tract carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis, and palliative chemotherapy has only modest benefit. This multi-centre phase II study was conducted to determine the efficacy of capecitabine in combination with oxaliplatin in patients with inoperable gall bladder or biliary tract cancer. Methods: This was a Phase II, non-randomised, two-stage Simon design, multi-centre study. Ethics approval was sought and obtained by the North West MREC, and then locally by the West Glasgow Hospitals Research Ethics Com mittee. Eligible patients with inoperable locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder or biliary tract and with adequate performance status, haematologic, renal, and hepatic function were treated with capecit abine (1000 mg/m2 po, twice daily, days 1‚Äď14) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 i.v., day 1) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. The primary objective of the study was to determine the objective tumour response rates (complete and partial). The secondary objectives included assessment of toxicity, progression-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Forty-three patients were recruited between July 2003 and December 2005. The regimen was well tolerated with no grade 3/4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Grade 3/4 sensory neuropathy was observed in six patients. Two-thirds of patients received their chemotherapy without any dose delays. Overall response rate was 23.8 % (95 % CI 12.05‚Äď39.5 %). Stable disease was observed in a further 13 patients (31 %) and progressive disease observed in 12 (28.6 %) of patients. The median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95 % CI 2.8‚Äď6.4 months; Fig. 1) and the median overall survival 7.9 months (95 % CI 5.3‚Äď10.4 months; Fig. 2). Conclusion: Capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin has a lower disease control and shorter overall survival than the combination of cisplatin with gemcitabine which has subsequently become the standard of care in this disease. How ever, capecitabine in combination with oxaliplatin does have modest activity in this disease, and can be considered as an alternative treatment option for patients in whom cisplatin and/or gemcitabine are contra-indicated
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