6,300,013 research outputs found

    OVC costing technical consultation meeting report

    Full text link
    This item is archived in the repository for materials published for the USAID supported Orphans and Vulnerable Children Comprehensive Action Research Project (OVC-CARE) at the Boston University Center for Global Health and Development.The two day meeting explored the challenges and lessons learned from existing OVC program costing and outcome evaluation studies from various countries, and how these country and program specific models can lead to more robust methodologies to strengthen national OVC planning and programming.The USAID | Project SEARCH, Orphans and Vulnerable Children Comprehensive Action Research (OVC-CARE) Task Order, is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development under Contract No. GHH-I-00-07-00023-00, beginning August 1, 2008. OVC-CARE Task Order is implemented by Boston University. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agency

    Mechanisms of exercise-induced improvements in the contractile apparatus of the mammalian myocardium

    Get PDF
    One of the main outcomes of aerobic endurance exercise training is the improved maximal oxygen uptake, and this is pivotal to the improved work capacity that follows the exercise training. Improved maximal oxygen uptake in turn is at least partly achieved because exercise training increases the ability of the myocardium to produce a greater cardiac output. In healthy subjects, this has been demonstrated repeatedly over many decades. It has recently emerged that this scenario may also be true under conditions of an initial myocardial dysfunction. For instance, myocardial improvements may still be observed after exercise training in post-myocardial infarction heart failure. In both health and disease, it is the changes that occur in the individual cardiomyocytes with respect to their ability to contract that by and large drive the exercise training-induced adaptation to the heart. Here, we review the evidence and the mechanisms by which exercise training induces beneficial changes in the mammalian myocardium, as obtained by means of experimental and clinical studies, and argue that these changes ultimately alter the function of the whole heart and contribute to the changes in whole-body function

    MicroRNA-9 controls dendritic development by targeting REST

    Get PDF
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved noncoding RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. miR-9 is one of the most abundant miRNAs in the brain. Although the function of miR-9 has been well characterized in neural progenitors, its role in dendritic and synaptic development remains largely unknown. In order to target miR-9 in vivo, we developed a transgenic miRNA sponge mouse line allowing conditional inactivation of the miR-9 family in a spatio-temporal-controlled manner. Using this novel approach, we found that miR-9 controls dendritic growth and synaptic transmission in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-9-mediated downregulation of the transcriptional repressor REST is essential for proper dendritic growth.Fil: Giusti, Sebastian Alejandro. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry; AlemaniaFil: Vogl, Annette M.. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry; AlemaniaFil: Brockmann, Marina M.. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry; AlemaniaFil: Vercelli, Claudia Alejandra. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires - Instituto Partner de la Sociedad Max Planck; ArgentinaFil: Rein, Martin L.. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry; AlemaniaFil: Trümbach, Dietrich. Helmholtz Zentrum München; AlemaniaFil: Wurst, Wolfgang. Helmholtz Zentrum München; AlemaniaFil: Cazalla, Demian. University of Utah; Estados UnidosFil: Stein, Valentin. Universitaet Bonn; AlemaniaFil: Deussing, Jan M.. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry; AlemaniaFil: Refojo, Damian. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry; Alemani

    Contract law – The South Pacific: customary and introduced law

    Get PDF
    The author examines the practical effect of the combined influence of customary and introduced common laws on the law of contract operating in the South Pacific – particularly the twelve island countries within the region with membership of the “University of the South Pacific” (USP). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London

    The chemical potential for the inhomogeneous electron liquid in terms of its kinetic and potential parts with special consideration of the surface pote ntial step and BCS-BEC crossover

    Full text link
    The chemical potential μ\mu of a many-body system is valuable since it carries fingerprints of phase changes. Here, we summarize results for μ\mu for a thre e-dimensional electron liquid in terms of average kinetic and potential energie s per particle. The difference between μ\mu and the energy per particle is fou nd to be exactly the electrostatic potential step at the surface. We also prese nt calculations for an integrable one-dimensional many-body system with delta f unction interactions, exhibiting a BCS-BEC crossover. It is shown that in the B CS regime the chemical potential can be expressed solely in terms of the ground -state energy per particle. A brief discussion is also included of the strong c oupling BEC limit.Comment: 4 pages 3 figure

    On an isoperimetric problem with a competing non-local term. II. The general case

    Full text link
    This paper is the continuation of [H. Kn\"upfer and C. B. Muratov, Commun. Pure Appl. Math. (2012, to be published)]. We investigate the classical isoperimetric problem modified by an addition of a non-local repulsive term generated by a kernel given by an inverse power of the distance. In this work, we treat the case of general space dimension. We obtain basic existence results for minimizers with sufficiently small masses. For certain ranges of the exponent in the kernel we also obtain non-existence results for sufficiently large masses, as well as a characterization of minimizers as balls for sufficiently small masses and low spatial dimensionality. The physically important special case of three space dimensions and Coulombic repulsion is included in all the results mentioned above. In particular, our work yields a negative answer to the question if stable atomic nuclei at arbitrarily high atomic numbers can exist in the framework of the classical liquid drop model of nuclear matter. In all cases the minimal energy scales linearly with mass for large masses, even if the infimum of energy may not be attained

    Acute kidney injury: an acceptable risk of treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockade in primary care?

    Get PDF
    Background: Use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has become increasingly widespread driven by evidence-based guidance. There is concern about the role of these agents in the genesis of avoidable acute kidney injury (AKI). Objectives: To investigate the association between AKI and use of RAS blockade. Design: Multilevel hierarchical analysis of a large cohort of patients registered with UK general practitioners. Setting: Primary care practices in East and West Kent, United Kingdom. Patients: 244,715 patients from 27 practices. Measurements: Demographic, clinical, biochemical and prescription data. Methods: Analyses of data acquired between 02/3/2004 and 17/04/2012 using multilevel logistic regression to determine the relationship between AKI and use of RAS blockade; further analysed by indication for treatment with RAS blockade. Results: Sufficient serum creatinine data were available to define AKI in 63,735 patients with 208,275 blood test instances. In 95,569 instances the patient was prescribed a RAS antagonist of which 5.4% fulfilled criteria for AKI. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for AKI in those prescribed RAS blockade was 1.93 (1.81-2.06, 95%CI) falling to 1.11 (1.02-1.20, 95%CI) when adjusted for age, gender, co-morbidity, GFR category, proteinuria, systolic blood pressure and diuretic therapy. In patients with an evidence-based indication there was no difference in absolute risk of AKI. However, prescription of RAS blockade in the absence of indication appeared to be associated with greater risk of AKI. When analysis was repeated with AKIN2/AKIN3 as the outcome, although risk of AKI remained significant when unadjusted (OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.42-2.11, p<0.001), after full adjustment there was no increased risk (OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.63-1.09) in those taking RAS antagonists. However, when analysed by indication AKIN2/AKIN3 was significantly more likely in those prescribed RAS antagonists without indication (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.41-2.94, p<0.001). Limitations: Observational database study. No information concerning hospitalisation. Prescribing assumptions and potential inaccurate coding. Potential survival bias; patients surviving longer will contribute more data. Conclusions: Use of RAS antagonists increased the risk of AKI, independent of common confounding variables. After correction for confounders the risk fell away and became non-significant for moderate and severe AKI. However, where there was no evidence-based indication for RAS antagonists the risk of AKI, whether mild, moderate or severe, remained greater

    A local lattice Boltzmann method for multiple immiscible fluids and dense suspensions of drops

    Get PDF
    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for computational fluid dynamics benefits from a simple, explicit, completely local computational algorithm making it highly efficient. We extend LBM to recover hydrodynamics of multi-component immiscible fluids, whilst retaining a completely local, explicit and simple algorithm. Hence, no computationally expensive lattice gradients, interaction potentials or curvatures, that use information from neighbouring lattice sites, need be calculated, which makes the method highly scalable and suitable for high performance parallel computing. The method is analytic and is shown to recover correct continuum hydrodynamic equations of motion and interfacial boundary conditions. This LBM may be further extended to situations containing a high number (O(100)) of individually immiscible drops. We make comparisons of the emergent non-Newtonian behaviour with a power-law fluid model. We anticipate our method will have a range applications in engineering, industrial and biological sciences
    corecore