166,872 research outputs found

    Sorting and transmission electron microscopy analysis of single or double wall carbon nanotubes

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    On the basis of the recent progress on the sorting of carbon nanotubes’ structure with respect to their diameter or number of walls, we investigate by transmission electron microscopy the sorting efficiency, with a comparison with optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. We study density gradient ultracentrifugation sorted single walled or double walled carbon nanotubes, showing obviously the ability to separate carbon nanotubes of different diameters or/and number of walls. This microscopic approach affords accurate information about the sorted samples such as the real mean diameter, the relative concentration of double walled carbon nanotubes over single walled carbon nanotubes, standard deviation, and the real diameter distribution of carbon nanotubes, even beyond any possible accurate analysis from optical absorption spectroscopy. Therefore, we demonstrate that the diameter analysis of the sorted samples by TEM can indeed afford some information about the relevant optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Scanned Probe Microscopy of Electronic Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

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    We use electrostatic force microscopy and scanned gate microscopy to probe the conducting properties of carbon nanotubes at room temperature. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are shown to be diffusive conductors, while metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes are ballistic conductors over micron lengths. Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are shown to have a series of large barriers to conduction along their length. These measurements are also used to probe the contact resistance and locate breaks in carbon nanotube circuits.Comment: 4 page

    Complement activation and protein adsorption by carbon nanotubes

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    As a first step to validate the use of carbon nanotubes as novel vaccine or drug delivery devices, their interaction with a part of the human immune system, complement, has been explored. Haemolytic assays were conducted to investigate the activation of the human serum complement system via the classical and alternative pathways. Western blot and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) techniques were used to elucidate the mechanism of activation of complement via the classical pathway, and to analyse the interaction of complement and other plasma proteins with carbon nanotubes. We report for the first time that carbon nanotubes activate human complement via both classical and alternative pathways. We conclude that complement activation by nanotubes is consistent with reported adjuvant effects, and might also in various circumstances promote damaging effects of excessive complement activation, such as inflammation and granuloma formation. C1q binds directly to carbon nanotubes. Protein binding to carbon nanotubes is highly selective, since out of the many different proteins in plasma, very few bind to the carbon nanotubes. Fibrinogen and apolipoproteins (AI, AIV and CIII) were the proteins that bound to carbon nanotubes in greatest quantit

    Static and dynamic strain sensing using a polymer : carbon nanotube film strain sensor

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    The search for new multipoint, multidirectional strain sensing devices has received a new impetus since the discovery of carbon nanotubes. The excellent electrical, mechanical, and electromechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them ideal candidates as primary materials in the design of this new generation of sensing devices. Carbon nanotube based strain sensors proposed so far include those based on individual carbon nanotubes for integration in nano or micro elecromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS) [1], or carbon nanotube films consisting of spatially connected carbon nanotubes [2], carbon nanotube - polymer composites [3,4] for macroscale strain sensing. Carbon nanotube films have good strain sensing response and offer the possibility of multidirectional and multipoint strain sensing, but have poor performance due to weak interaction between carbon nanotubes. In addition, the carbon nanotube film sensor is extremely fragile and difficult to handle and install. We report here the static and dynamic strain sensing characteristics as well as temperature effects of a sandwich carbon nanotube - polymer sensor fabricated by infiltrating carbon nanotube films with polymer

    Thermal conductivity of deformed carbon nanotubes

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    We investigate the thermal conductivity of four types of deformed carbon nanotubes by using the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method. It is reported that various deformations have different influence on the thermal properties of carbon nanotubes. For the bending carbon nanotubes, the thermal conductivity is independent on the bending angle. However, the thermal conductivity increases lightly with XY-distortion and decreases rapidly with Z-distortion. The thermal conductivity does not change with the screw ratio before the breaking of carbon nanotubes but decreases sharply after the critical screw ratio.Comment: 6figure

    Optimising DNA binding to carbon nanotubes by non-covalent methods

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    The use of carbon nanotubes as a gene delivery system has been extensively studied in recent years owing to its potential advantages over viral vectors. To achieve this goal, carbon nanotubes have to be functionalized to become compatible with aqueous media and to bind the genetic material. To establish the best conditions for plasmid DNA binding, we compare the dispersion properties of single-, double- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, DWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively) functionalized with a variety of surfactants by non-covalent attachment. The DNA binding properties of the functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied and compared by electrophoresis. Furthermore, a bilayer functionalization method for DNA binding on SWCNTs was developed that utilized RNA-wrapping to solubilize the nanotubes and cationic polymers as a bridge between nanotubes and DNA

    Light Emission in Silicon from Carbon Nanotubes

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    The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. A complete study of this coupling between carbon nanotubes and silicon waveguides was carried out, which led to the demonstration of the temperature-independent emission from carbon nanotubes in silicon at a wavelength of 1.3 {\mu}m. This represents the first milestone in the development of photonics based on carbon nanotubes on silicon

    Electrical conductivity improvement of aeronautical carbon fiber reinforced polyepoxy composites by insertion of carbon nanotubes

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    An increase and homogenization of electrical conductivity is essential in epoxy carbon fiber laminar aeronautical composites. Dynamic conductivity measurements have shown a very poor transversal conductivity. Double wall carbon nanotubes have been introduced into the epoxy matrix to increase the electrical conductivity. The conductivity and the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy matrix were evaluated. The epoxy matrix was filled with 0.4 wt.% of CNTs to establish the percolation threshold. A very low value of carbon nanotubes is crucial to maintain the mechanical properties and avoid an overload of the composite weight. The final carbon fiber aeronautical composite realized with the carbon nanotubes epoxy filled was studied. The conductivity measurements have shown a large increase of the transversal electrical conductivity. The percolative network has been established and scanning electron microscopy images confirm the presence of the carbon nanotube conductive pathway in the carbon fiber ply. The transversal bulk conductivity has been homogenized and improved to 10−1 S·m−1 for a carbon nanotubes loading near 0.12 wt.%

    Elastic properties of carbon nanotubes and their heterojunctions

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    Comprehensive studies on the modelling and numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour under tension, bending and torsion of single-walled carbon nanotubes and their heterojunctions are performed. It is proposed to deduce the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes heterojunctions from the knowledge of the mechanical properties of the single-walled carbon nanotubes, which are their constituent key unit
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