38,988 research outputs found

    Understanding the role of bone marrow niche in myeloid malignancies

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    Normal hematopoiesis is generated and maintained by rare hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through their capacity to self-renew and differentiate. This process is rigorously controlled, both by HSC-intrinsic molecular programs and extrinsic signals emitted by the local bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, the so-called HSC niche. The BM niche consists of many cellular elements, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and soluble factors secreted by the cells. The niche homeostasis is critical for maintenance of normal hematopoiesis, and disruption of this BM niche may lead to malignant hematopoiesis, including leukemia. On the other hand, once malignant hematopoiesis is established, the niche structure and composition can be altered to protect leukemia-initiating stem cell (LSC). The aims of the presented thesis were to investigate the role of the BM niche in development of myeloid malignancies. In study I, we analyzed expression of leukotriene (LT) signaling molecules in LSCs derived from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, and tested their response to pharmacological inhibition of LT signaling. By using single cell PCR, we found only low expression of ALOX5 in patient BCR-ABL+ LSCs and BCR-ABL- HSCs. Moreover, in contrast to previous observations in mice and in liquid cultures in vitro, pharmacological inhibition of ALOX5 did not result in any significant growth suppression of CML LSCs in long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay on a stromal cell layer. Furthermore, although expression of CYSLT1 was detected in the majority of analyzed LSCs, treatment with its antagonist, montelukast, did not significantly reduce the LTC-IC activity of LSCs. Thus, these results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the LT pathway might not be sufficient to eradicate LSCs, particularly in the presence of BM stromal cells. In study II, we investigated the role of BM niche in pathogenesis of MDS/MPN by using a Sipa1-/- mouse model. We found that Sipa1 was expressed in BM stromal cells from mice and healthy humans, but was downregulated in these cells from patients with MPN and MDS/MPN. Additionally, Sipa1 deficiency in mice led to phenotypical and functional alterations in the BM cellular niche prior to disease development, and reciprocal transplantation experiments further confirmed that Sipa1-/- BM niche was a prerequisite for MDS/MPN development. Moreover, RNA sequencing analysis showed dysregulated expression of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in the BM stromal cells from young, disease-free Sipa1-/- mice. Altogether, our data suggest that Sipa1 expression in the BM stromal cells is critical for maintaining BM niche homeostasis, and that Sipa1 deficiency in BM niche plays an instructive role in development of MDS/MPN in mice. Finally in study III, we prospectively characterized BM stromal cells in newly-diagnosed patients with CML. First of all, we discovered that patient’s BM stromal cells share similar immunophenotype as normal BM (NBM) counterparts, but that the CML BM niche composition was changed, showing increased frequency of endothelial cells. Moreover, we found alterations in functional properties of CML-derived MSCs, e.g. an impaired osteochondrogenic differentiation potential, and an enhanced capacity to support NBM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vitro. Even though no BCR-ABL fusion gene was detected in CML BM stromal cells, the RNA sequencing revealed cytokine dysregulation, particularly loss of CXCL14 in CML BM niche. Interestingly, restoration of CXCL14 expression in stromal cells suppressed the growth of LSCs in LTC-IC assays, but promoted their differentiation. These results indicate that CXCL14 might help to eradicate LSCs and therefore serve as a new therapeutic candidate for CML treatment. To conclude, we herein showed that BM niche might contribute to myeloid malignancies in mice and human. Thus, targeting the dysregulated BM niche factors and the abnormal interaction between BM niche and LSCs could be a promising therapeutic approach to treat patients with myeloid malignancies

    Bone angiogenesis and vascular niche remodeling in stress, aging, and diseases

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    The bone marrow (BM) vascular niche microenvironments harbor stem and progenitor cells of various lineages. Bone angiogenesis is distinct and involves tissue-specific signals. The nurturing vascular niches in the BM are complex and heterogenous consisting of distinct vascular and perivascular cell types that provide crucial signals for the maintenance of stem and progenitor cells. Growing evidence suggests that the BM niche is highly sensitive to stress. Aging, inflammation and other stress factors induce changes in BM niche cells and their crosstalk with tissue cells leading to perturbed hematopoiesis, bone angiogenesis and bone formation. Defining vascular niche remodeling under stress conditions will improve our understanding of the BM vascular niche and its role in homeostasis and disease. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the current understanding of the BM vascular niches for hematopoietic stem cells and their malfunction during aging, bone loss diseases, arthritis and metastasis

    Different niches for stem cells carrying the same oncogenic driver affect pathogenesis and therapy response in myeloproliferative neoplasms

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    Aging facilitates the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) carrying clonal hematopoiesis-related somatic mutations and the development of myeloid malignancies, such as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). While cooperating mutations can cause transformation, it is unclear whether distinct bone marrow (BM) HSC-niches can influence the growth and therapy response of HSCs carrying the same oncogenic driver. Here we found different BM niches for HSCs in MPN subtypes. JAK-STAT signaling differentially regulates CDC42-dependent HSC polarity, niche interaction and mutant cell expansion. Asymmetric HSC distribution causes differential BM niche remodeling: sinusoidal dilation in polycythemia vera and endosteal niche expansion in essential thrombocythemia. MPN development accelerates in a prematurely aged BM microenvironment, suggesting that the specialized niche can modulate mutant cell expansion. Finally, dissimilar HSC-niche interactions underpin variable clinical response to JAK inhibitor. Therefore, HSC-niche interactions influence the expansion rate and therapy response of cells carrying the same clonal hematopoiesis oncogenic driver

    Bone marrow CD169+ macrophages promote the retention of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the mesenchymal stem cell niche

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    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized bone marrow (BM) niches regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Here, we have examined whether mononuclear phagocytes modulate the HSC niche. We defined three populations of BM mononuclear phagocytes that include Gr-1hi monocytes (MOs), Gr-1lo MOs, and macrophages (MΦ) based on differential expression of Gr-1, CD115, F4/80, and CD169. Using MO and MΦ conditional depletion models, we found that reductions in BM mononuclear phagocytes led to reduced BM CXCL12 levels, the selective down-regulation of HSC retention genes in Nestin+ niche cells, and egress of HSCs/progenitors to the bloodstream. Furthermore, specific depletion of CD169+ MΦ, which spares BM MOs, was sufficient to induce HSC/progenitor egress. MΦ depletion also enhanced mobilization induced by a CXCR4 antagonist or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. These results highlight two antagonistic, tightly balanced pathways that regulate maintenance of HSCs/progenitors in the niche during homeostasis, in which MΦ cross talk with the Nestin+ niche cell promotes retention, and in contrast, SNS signals enhance egress. Thus, strategies that target BM MΦ hold the potential to augment stem cell yields in patients that mobilize HSCs/progenitors poorly

    Human umbilical cord blood-borne fibroblasts contain marrow niche precursors that form a bone/marrow organoid in vivo

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    Human umbilical cord blood (CB) has attracted much attention as a reservoir for functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and, recently, as a source of blood-borne fibroblasts (CB-BFs). Previously, we demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) and CB-BF pellet cultures make cartilage in vitro. Furthermore, upon in vivo transplantation, BMSC pellets remodelled into miniature bone/marrow organoids. Using this in vivo model, we asked whether CB-BF populations that express characteristics of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche contain precursors that reform the niche. CB ossicles were regularly observed upon transplantation. Compared with BM ossicles, CB ossicles showed a predominance of red marrow over yellow marrow, as demonstrated by histomorphological analyses and the number of hematopoietic cells isolated within ossicles. Marrow cavities from CB and BM ossicles included donor-derived CD146-expressing osteoprogenitors and host-derived mature hematopoietic cells, clonogenic lineage-committed progenitors and HSCs. Furthermore, human CD34+ cells transplanted into ossicle-bearing mice engrafted and maintained human HSCs in the niche. Our data indicate that CB- BFs are able to recapitulate the conditions by which the bone marrow microenvironment is formed and establish complete HSC niches, which are functionally supportive of hematopoietic tissue

    Alterations in the self-renewal and differentiation ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis

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    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease primarily involving the synovium. Evidence in recent years has suggested that the bone marrow (BM) may be involved, and may even be the initiating site of the disease. Abnormalities in haemopoietic stem cells' (HSC) survival, proliferation and aging have been described in patients affected by RA and ascribed to abnormal support by the BM microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and their progeny constitute important components of the BM niche. In this study we test the hypothesis that the onset of inflammatory arthritis is associated with altered self-renewal and differentiation of bone marrow MSC, which alters the composition of the BM microenvironment. Methods: We have used Balb/C Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knock-out mice, which spontaneously develop RA-like disease in 100% of mice by 20 weeks of age to determine the number of mesenchymal progenitors and their differentiated progeny before, at the start and with progression of the disease. Results: We showed a decrease in the number of mesenchymal progenitors with adipogenic potential and decreased bone marrow adipogenesis before disease onset. This is associated with a decrease in osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, at the onset of disease a significant increase in all mesenchymal progenitors is observed together with a block in their differentiation to osteoblasts. This is associated with accelerated bone loss. Conclusions: Significant changes occur in the BM niche with the establishment and progression of RA-like disease. Those changes may be responsible for aspects of the disease, including the advance of osteoporosis. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to those changes may lead to new strategies for therapeutic intervention

    EBF1-deficient bone marrow stroma elicits persistent changes in HSC potential

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    Crosstalk between mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is essential for hematopoietic homeostasis and lineage output. Here, we investigate how transcriptional changes in bone marrow (BM) MSCs result in long-lasting effects on HSCs. Single-cell analysis of Cxcl12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells and PDGFRα+Sca1+ (PαS) cells revealed an extensive cellular heterogeneity but uniform expression of the transcription factor gene Ebf1. Conditional deletion of Ebf1 in these MSCs altered their cellular composition, chromatin structure and gene expression profiles, including the reduced expression of adhesion-related genes. Functionally, the stromal-specific Ebf1 inactivation results in impaired adhesion of HSCs, leading to reduced quiescence and diminished myeloid output. Most notably, HSCs residing in the Ebf1-deficient niche underwent changes in their cellular composition and chromatin structure that persist in serial transplantations. Thus, genetic alterations in the BM niche lead to long-term functional changes of HSCs

    The hematopoietic bone marrow niche ecosystem

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    The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, also called the BM niche, is essential for the maintenance of fully functional blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) throughout life. Under physiologic conditions the niche protects hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from sustained or overstimulation. Acute or chronic stress deregulates hematopoiesis and some of these alterations occur indirectly via the niche. Effects on niche cells include skewing of its cellular composition, specific localization and molecular signals that differentially regulate the function of HSCs and their progeny. Importantly, while acute insults display only transient effects, repeated or chronic insults lead to sustained alterations of the niche, resulting in HSC deregulation. We here describe how changes in BM niche composition (ecosystem) and structure (remodeling) modulate activation of HSCs in situ . Current knowledge has revealed that upon chronic stimulation, BM remodeling is more extensive and otherwise quiescent HSCs may be lost due to diminished cellular maintenance processes, such as autophagy, ER stress response, and DNA repair. Features of aging in the BM ecology may be the consequence of intermittent stress responses, ultimately resulting in the degeneration of the supportive stem cell microenvironment. Both chronic stress and aging impair the functionality of HSCs and increase the overall susceptibility to development of diseases, including malignant transformation. To understand functional degeneration, an important prerequisite is to define distinguishing features of unperturbed niche homeostasis in different settings. A unique setting in this respect is xenotransplantation, in which human cells depend on niche factors produced by other species, some of which we will review. These insights should help to assess deviations from the steady state to actively protect and improve recovery of the niche ecosystem in situ to optimally sustain healthy hematopoiesis in experimental and clinical settings
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