16,283 research outputs found

    Vitruvius’ idea on character: somelessons for design students

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    Ponencia presentada a Session 3: Educación y arquitectura en las universidades / Architectural education in the universitie

    LAI based trees selection for mid latitude urban developments: A microclimatic study in Cairo, Egypt

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    To study the leaf area index, LAI, based thermal performance in distinguishing trees for Cairo's urban developments, ENVI-met plants database was used as platform for a foliage modeling parameter, the leaf area density, LAD. Two Egyptian trees: Ficus elastica. and Peltophorum pterocarpum were simulated in 2 urban sites with one having no trees, whilst the second is having Ficus nitida trees. Trees LAD values were calculated using flat leaves' trees LAI definition to produce maximum ground solid shadow at peak time. An empirical value of 1 for LAI is applied to numerically introduce LAD values for ENVI-met. Basically, different meteorological records showed improvements for pedestrian comfort and ambient microclimate of the building using E elastica. About 40-50% interception of direct radiation, reductions in surfaces' fluxes around trees and in radiant temperature T-mrt in comparison to base cases gave preferability to E elastica. The lack of soil water prevented evapotranspiration to take place effectively and the reduced wind speeds concluded negligible air temperature differences from both base cases except slightly appeared with the F elastica. Results show that a flat leaves tree if does not validate LAI of 1, the ground shading would not fulfill about 50% direct radiation interception and this value can be used as a reference for urban trees selection. Further simulations were held to investigate LAI value of maximum direct radiation interception. Performing additional simulations, F elastica of LAI of 3 intercepted almost 84% of direct radiation and revealed implications about urban trees in practice and its actual LAI. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Damage index for stone monuments

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    Precise diagnosis is required for characterisation, interpretation, rating and prediction of the weathering damages at stone monuments and is vital for remedy of stone damages and sustainable monument preservation. Quantitative rating of damages represents an important scientific contribution to reliable damage diagnosis at stone monuments. Damage indices are introduced as new tool for scientific quantification and rating of stone damages. Application of damage indices improves stone damage diagnosis and is very suitable for evaluation and certification of preservation measures and for long-term survey and maintenance of stone monuments. Importance and use of damage indices are presented for monuments in Germany, Malta, Jordan, Egypt and Brazil.peer-reviewe
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