20,968 research outputs found

    Dataset: Paranita, a new genus of spiders from northeastern Argentina (Araneae, Trachelidae)

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    DNA alignments, morphological data and phylogenetic tree. Alignments of 6 DNA markers and morphological data for the phylogenetic analysis of teh genus Paranita. For the phylogenetic analysis, we composed a dataset combining eight traditional target markers from the analysis of Wheeler et al. (2017) (12s, 16s, 18s, 28s, co1, H3), plus sequences from other sources and new co1 sequences for P. paulae (BOLD CORAR075, GenBank OR515542, MACN-Ar 30271) and Trachelopachys sericeus (BOLD SPDAR1264-15, GenBank OR515543, MACN-Ar 34546). Some markers were retrieved as bycatch from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) phylogenomic sequences (see publication for details). We used the morphological data accumulated in the datasets of Azevedo et al. (2022a) and Ramírez (2014). The analyses under maximum likelihood were made with IQ-TREE 2.2.0 (Minh et al. 2020). Models for each target-gene were selected by Bayesian information criterion with ModelFinder (Kalyaanamoorthy et al. 2017). The models selected for the sequence data were as follows: TIM2+F+G4 (12s and 16s), TNe+R2 (18s, co1-2, h3-1, h3-2), GTR+F+I+G4 (28s), GTR+F+I+G4 (co1-1), GTR+F+I+G4 (co1-3), GTR+F+I+G4 (h3-3). The morphological data was partitioned into two datasets, one with the unordered characters, another with the ordered ones, and analyzed with the Mk and Mk-ordered models, respectively, both with correction for ascertainment bias for the absence of invariant characters. Prior to analysis, all invariant characters were removed, and polymorphic entries were replaced by missing entries. The branch support was estimated with 1000 rounds of ultrafast bootstrap (Hoang et al., 2018). The analyses under maximum parsimony were made with TNT v 1.6 (Goloboff & Catalano, 2016) under equal weights using an exact search of implicit enumeration. Branch support was measured with 1000 rounds of jackknifing, representing frequencies over the optimal tree. See publication for references and details.Funded by FONCyT PICT 2019-2745 to Martín Ramíre

    Keanekaragaman Arthropoda Permukaan Tanah Pada Pertanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum L.) Pada Lahan Gambut yang Diaplikasikan Kulit Jengkol

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    Bawang merah merupakan komoditas rempah yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Bawang merah menjadi salah satu komoditas yang sangat berpengaruh terhadap tingkat inflasi ekonomi.  Komoditas ini mengalami penurunan produksi sebanyak 101%. Pada tahun 2017 dapat menghasilkan 28.456 kuintal sedangkan pada tahun 2018 menghasilkan  14.155 kuintal. Hal ini dapat dikarenakan oleh beberapa hal yang terdapat dalam lingkungan disekitar pertanaman tersebut.  Adapun tujuan dalam penelitian ini untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman arthopoda pada pertanaman bawang merah Allium ascalonicum.penelitian ini dilaksanakan mulai bulan Oktober - Desember 2021 di Lahan Desa Tegal Arum Kota Banjarbaru. Metode penelitian menggunakan metode eksplorasi yang dilakukan secara langsung dilokasi pertnamanam bawang merah trap yang diberikan perlakuan serbuk kulit jengkol dengan menggunakan jebakan permukaan tanah Pitfall. Hasil perhitungan jebakan yang dipasang memerangkap 239 ekor arthropoda yang termasuk dalam 5 ordo, yaitu Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Dermaptera dan Araneae.Shallots are a spice commodity that is very important in everyday life. Shallots are one of the commodities that greatly influence the level of economic inflation. This commodity experienced a decline in production of 101%. In 2017 it could produce 28,456 quintals while in 2018 it produced 14,155 quintals. This can be caused by several things that exist in the environment around the plantation. This research aims to determine the diversity of arthropods in Allium ascalonicum shallot plantings. This research was carried out from October - to December 2021 on Tegal Arum Village Land, Banjarbaru City. The research method uses an exploration method carried out directly at the location of the shallot trap plantation and treated with jengkol (Archidendron pauciflorum) skin powder using a Pitfall ground surface trap. The calculation results of the traps installed trapped 239 arthropods belonging to 5 orders, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Dermaptera, and Araneae

    The non-dereliction in evolution: Trophic specialisation drives convergence in the radiation of red devil spiders (Araneae: Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands.

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    Natural selection plays a key role in deterministic evolution, as clearly illustrated by the multiple cases of repeated evolution of ecomorphological characters observed in adaptive radiations. Unlike most spiders, Dysdera species display a high variability of cheliceral morphologies, which has been suggested to reflect different levels of specialization to feed on isopods. In this study, we integrate geometric morphometrics and experimental trials with a fully resolved phylogeny of the highly diverse endemic species from the Canary Islands to 1) quantitatively delimit the different cheliceral morphotypes present in the archipelago, 2) test their association with trophic specialization, as reported for continental species, 3) reconstruct the evolution of these ecomorphs throughout the diversification of the group, 4) test the hypothesis of convergent evolution of the different morphotypes, and 5) examine whether specialization constitutes a case of evolutionary irreversibility in this group. We show the existence of 9 cheliceral morphotypes and uncovered their significance for trophic ecology. Further, we demonstrate that similar ecomorphs evolved multiple times in the archipelago, providing a novel study system to explain how convergent evolution and irreversibility due to specialization may be combined to shape phenotypic diversification in adaptive radiations. [Adaptive radiation; convergent evolution; ecological specialization; geometric morphometrics; irreversibility; mitogenomics; phylogenetic comparative methods.

    Pengaruh Aplikasi Pupuk Organik Plus Pada Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum) terhadap Keanekaragaman Arthropoda di Lahan Gambut

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    Shallots (Allium ascalonicum L.) from the Lilyceae family are annual horticultural plants. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the application of organic fertilizer plus on the diversity of arthropods in shallot plants in peatlands. The method used in this research was a one-factor Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of 4 treatments and 5 replications. Data from arthropod identification results are grouped based on order and family which are presented in tabular form. Then an analysis was carried out using diversity indices, species richness and species evenness. The results of the research show that the most dominant arthropods are the predator group. The results also show that the level of arthropod species diversity is moderate, the level of arthropod species richness is low, the level of evenness of arthropod species shows an unstable distribution. The most dominant group of arthropods is the predator group and the results of the LSD analysis test at the 5% level showed a real influence on the diversity of arthropods in shallot plants in peatlands where organic fertilizer plus 125 g/hole was applied with an average of 48.40 individuals.Bawang merah (Allium ascalonicum L.) dari famili Lilyceae merupakan tanaman hortikultura semusim. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari aplikasi pupuk organik plus terhadap keanekaragaman arthropoda pada tanaman bawang merah di lahan gambut. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) satu faktor yang terdiri dari 4 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Data hasil identifikasi arthropoda dikelompokan berdasarkan ordo dan famili yang disajikan dalam bentuk tabulasi. Kemudian dilakukan analisis menggunakan indeks keanekaragaman, kekayaan jenis, dan kemerataan spesies. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa arthropoda yang paling mendominansi yaitu kelompok predator. Hasil juga menunjukan tingkat keanekaragaman jenis arthropoda sedang, tingkat kekayaan jenis arthropoda rendah, tingkat kemerataan spesies arthropoda menunjukan penyebaran yang tidak stabil. Kelompok arthrropoda yang paling mendominasi adalah kelompok predator dan hasil uji analisis LSD pada taraf 5% terdapat pengaruh nyata terhadap keanekaragaman arthropoda pada tanaman bawang merah di lahan gambut yang diaplikasikan pupuk organik plus 125 g/lubang dengan rata-rata sebesar 48,40 ekor

    The research landscape of direct, sensory human–nature interactions

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Wiley via the DOI in this record. Data availability statement: Data used for this article are all available in the public domain. Datasets used for analyses are available at Figshare: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.24125334Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the human–nature interactions research landscape can benefit researchers by providing insights into the most relevant topics, popular research areas and the distribution of topics across different disciplines, journals and regions. The research literature on direct human–nature interactions is constituted from a rich and diverse spectrum of disciplines. This multidisciplinary structure poses challenges in keeping up with developments and trends. We conducted a multidisciplinary text-analysis review of research on direct, sensory human–nature interactions to understand the main topics of research, the types of interactions, the disciplines within which they manifest in the literature, their growth through time and their global localities and contexts. Our analysis of 2773 articles showed that there has been recent growth in research interest in positive human–nature interactions that is biased towards high-income countries. There is a substantial body of research on negative human–nature interactions, mostly from the medical fields, which is distinct from research on positive human–nature interactions in other fields such as ecology, psychology, social science, environmental management and tourism. Of particular note is the very large amount of medical research on the causes and consequences of snake bites, particularly in Asia. Understanding the relationship between these two contrasting types of interactions is of significant practical importance. More recent attention towards positive human–nature interactions in high-income societies biases views of the relationship between people and nature. Research into human–nature interactions needs to take the next step towards a unified and holistic understanding of the benefits and costs of direct experiences with nature. This step is crucial to achieve a more sustainable future that benefits both biodiversity and human society, during great environmental and climatic change. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceToyota Foundatio

    Interrelation of urban farming and urbanization: an alternative solution to urban food and environmental problems due to urbanization in Indonesia

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    Urbanization is the process of increasing the population migrating to urban areas, and urban farming is a farming practice carried out within the city. Both concepts have significant impacts on urban life and the environment. This research aims to analyze the interrelation of the positive impacts of urban farming and the negative impacts of urbanization. The analysis focuses on food and environmental aspects as alternative problem-solving methods in the cities of Bandung, Denpasar, and Palembang. This research uses qualitative method. Data collection uses field interview techniques with 30 informants, as well as a review of several scientific articles, previous research results, and reports from data-providing agencies such as the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics. Data analysis used the Miles and Huberman Model, with the stages of reduction, display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the analysis show that there is an interrelation between the positive impacts of urban farming and the negative impacts of urbanization in the cities of Bandung, Denpasar, and Palembang. In terms of food aspect, urban farming can provide various types of easily accessible food for urban dwellers, such as vegetables, fruits, fisheries, and small-scale livestock. The food produced is relatively close to residential areas, so the quality is still fresh and healthy and the price is affordable as well. In the environmental aspect, urban farming can optimize the use of limited or vacant land in residential areas into productive land, such as for green spaces, farming activities, gardening, fisheries, and livestock. Other functions include enhancing the beauty of the environment, reducing household waste, and preserving organism biodiversity

    Seven new species of the segmented spider genus Liphistius (Mesothelae, Liphistiidae) in Thailand and Myanmar

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    Seven new species of the primitive segmented spider genus Liphistius are described and assigned to species groups based on characters of the male palp and vulva plate. The bristowei group includes L. dawei Sivayyapram & Warrit, sp. nov. (♂♀) from southeastern Myanmar, L. choosaki Sivayyapram & Warrit, sp. nov. (♀) from northwestern Thailand, and L. lansak Sivayyapram & Warrit, sp. nov. (♀) from western Thailand; the trang group (Complex A) contains L. kaengkhoi Sivayyapram & Warrit, sp. nov. (♂♀), L. hintung Sivayyapram & Warrit, sp. nov. (♂♀), L. buyphradi Sivayyapram & Warrit, sp. nov. (♂♀), and L. champakpheaw Sivayyapram & Warrit, sp. nov. (♂♀) from central Thailand

    Soil macrofauna communities in Brazilian land-use systems

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    Soil animal communities include more than 40 higher-order taxa, representing over 23% of all described species. These animals have a wide range of feeding sources and contribute to several important soil functions and ecosystem services. Although many studies have assessed macroinvertebrate communities in Brazil, few of them have been published in journals and even fewer have made the data openly available for consultation and further use. As part of ongoing efforts to synthesise the global soil macrofauna communities and to increase the amount of openly-accessible data in GBIF and other repositories related to soil biodiversity, the present paper provides links to 29 soil macroinvertebrate datasets covering 42 soil fauna taxa, collected in various land-use systems in Brazil. A total of 83,085 georeferenced occurrences of these taxa are presented, based on quantitative estimates performed using a standardised sampling method commonly adopted worldwide to collect soil macrofauna populations, i.e. the TSBF (Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme) protocol. This consists of digging soil monoliths of 25 x 25 cm area, with handsorting of the macroinvertebrates visible to the naked eye from the surface litter and from within the soil, typically in the upper 0-20 cm layer (but sometimes shallower, i.e. top 0-10 cm or deeper to 0-40 cm, depending on the site). The land-use systems included anthropogenic sites managed with agricultural systems (e.g. pastures, annual and perennial crops, agroforestry), as well as planted forests and native vegetation located mostly in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná (96 sites), with a few additional sites in the neighbouring states of São Paulo (21 sites) and Santa Catarina (five sites). Important metadata on soil properties, particularly soil chemical parameters (mainly pH, C, P, Ca, K, Mg, Al contents, exchangeable acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, Base Saturation and, infrequently, total N), particle size distribution (mainly % sand, silt and clay) and, infrequently, soil moisture and bulk density, as well as on human management practices (land use and vegetation cover) are provided. These data will be particularly useful for those interested in estimating land-use change impacts on soil biodiversity and its implications for below-ground foodwebs, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem service delivery.Quantitative estimates are provided for 42 soil animal taxa, for two biodiversity hotspots: the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. Data are provided at the individual monolith level, representing sampling events ranging from February 2001 up to September 2016 in 122 sampling sites and over 1800 samples, for a total of 83,085 ocurrences

    Evolutionary ecology of obligate fungal and microsporidian invertebrate pathogens

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    The interactions between hosts and their parasites and pathogens are omnipresent in the natural world. These symbioses are not only key players in ecosystem functioning, but also drive genetic diversity through co-evolutionary adaptations. Within the speciose invertebrates, a plethora of interactions with obligate fungal and microsporidian pathogens exist, however the known interactions is likely only a fraction of the true diversity. Obligate invertebrate fungal and microsporidian pathogen require a host to continue their life cycle, some of which have specialised in certain host species and require host death to transmit to new hosts. Due to their requirement to kill a host to spread to a new one, obligate fungal and microsporidian pathogens regulate invertebrate host populations. Pathogen specialisation to a single or very few hosts has led to some fungi evolving the ability to manipulate their host’s behaviour to maximise transmission. The entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophthora muscae, infects houseflies (Musca domestica) over a week-long proliferation cycle, resulting in flies climbing to elevated positions, gluing their mouthparts to the substrate surface, and raising their wings to allow for a clear exit from fungal conidia through the host abdomen. These sequential behaviours are all timed to occur within a few hours of sunset. The E. muscae mechanisms used in controlling the mind of the fly remain relatively unknown, and whether other fitness costs ensue from an infection are understudied.European Commissio

    Paranita, a new genus of spiders from northeastern Argentina (Araneae, Trachelidae): Original images at full resolution

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    For scanning electron microscope images (SEM) the samples were gradually dehydrated to 100% ethanol, critical point dried and coated with gold-palladium, and examined in a FEI-XL30 under high vacuum, with accelerating voltages 10–20 kV, using a secondary electron (SE) detector. Female genitalia were examined after clarification in clove oil and drawn with a camera lucida using an Olympus BH2 compound microscope. Incident light images were taken with a Leica M165C stereomicroscope, equipped with a Leica DFC290 digital camera.Fil: Ramirez, Martin Javier. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia"; ArgentinaFil: Grismado, Cristian José. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia"; Argentin
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