8,969 research outputs found

    Complicated objects: artifacts from the Yuanming Yuan in Victorian Britain

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    The 1860 spoliation of the Summer Palace at the close of the Second Opium War by British and French troops was a watershed event within the development of Britain as an imperialist nation, which guaranteed a market for opium produced in its colony India and demonstrated the power of its armed forces. The distribution of the spoils to officers and diplomatic corps by campaign leaders in Beijing was also a sign of the British ArmyÔÇÖs rising power as an instrument of the imperialist state. These conditions would suggest that objects looted from the site would be integrated into an imperialist aesthetic that reflected and promoted the material benefits of military engagement overseas and foregrounded the circumstances of their removal to Britain for campaign members and the British public. This study mines sources dating to the two decades following the war ÔÇô including British newspapers, auction house records, exhibition catalogs and works of art ÔÇô to test this hypothesis. Findings show that initial movements of looted objects through the military and diplomatic corps did reinforce notions of imperialist power by enabling campaign members to profit from the spoliation through sales of looted objects and trophy displays. However, material from the Summer Palace arrived at a moment when British manufacturers and cultural leaders were engaged in a national effort to improve the quality of British goods to compete in the international marketplace and looted art was quickly interpolated in this national conversation. Ironically, the same ÔÇťfree tradeÔÇŁ imperatives that motivated the invasion energized a new design movement that embraced Chinese ornament. As a consequence, political interpretations of the material outside of military collections were quickly joined by a strong response to Chinese ornament from cultural institutions and design leaders. Art from the Summer Palace held a prominent place at industrial art exhibitions of the postwar period and inspired new designs in a number of mediums. While the availability of Chinese imperial art was the consequence of a military invasion and therefore a product of imperialist expansion, evidence presented here shows that the design response to looted objects was not circumscribed by this political reality. Chinese ornament on imperial wares was ultimately celebrated for its formal qualities and acknowledged links to the Summer Palace were an indicator of good design, not a celebration of victory over a failed Chinese state. Therefore, the looting of the Summer Palace was ultimately an essential factor in the development of modern design, the essence of which is a break with Classical ornament

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r

    Machine Learning Research Trends in Africa: A 30 Years Overview with Bibliometric Analysis Review

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    In this paper, a critical bibliometric analysis study is conducted, coupled with an extensive literature survey on recent developments and associated applications in machine learning research with a perspective on Africa. The presented bibliometric analysis study consists of 2761 machine learning-related documents, of which 98% were articles with at least 482 citations published in 903 journals during the past 30 years. Furthermore, the collated documents were retrieved from the Science Citation Index EXPANDED, comprising research publications from 54 African countries between 1993 and 2021. The bibliometric study shows the visualization of the current landscape and future trends in machine learning research and its application to facilitate future collaborative research and knowledge exchange among authors from different research institutions scattered across the African continent

    Credible to Whom? The Organizational Politics of Credibility in International Relations

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    Why do foreign policy decision makers care about the credibility of their own stateÔÇÖs commitments? How does organizational identity shape policymakersÔÇÖ concern for credibility, and in turn, their willingness to use force during crises? While much previous research examines how decision makers assess othersÔÇÖ credibility, only recently have scholars questioned when and why leaders or their advisers prioritize their own stateÔÇÖs credibility. Building on classic scholarship in bureaucratic politics, I argue that organizational identity affects the dimensions of credibility that national security officials value, and ultimately, their policy advocacy around the use of force. Particular differences arise between military and diplomatic organizations; while military officials equate credibility with hard military capabilities, diplomats view credibility in terms of reputation, or demonstrating reliability and resolve to external parties. During crises, military officials confine their advice on the use of force to what can be achieved given current capabilities, while diplomats exhibit higher willingness to use force as a signal of a strong commitment. I test these propositions using text analysis of archival records from two collections of U.S. national security policy documents, eight case studies of American, British, and French crisis decision making, and an original survey experiment involving more than 400 current or former U.S. national security officials. I demonstrate that credibility concerns affect the balance of hawkishness in advice that diplomats and military officials deliver to leaders as a function of organizational identity

    Command and Persuade

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    Why, when we have been largely socialized into good behavior, are there more laws that govern our behavior than ever before? Levels of violent crime have been in a steady decline for centuriesÔÇöfor millennia, even. Over the past five hundred years, homicide rates have decreased a hundred-fold. We live in a time that is more orderly and peaceful than ever before in human history. Why, then, does fear of crime dominate modern politics? Why, when we have been largely socialized into good behavior, are there more laws that govern our behavior than ever before? In Command and Persuade, Peter Baldwin examines the evolution of the state's role in crime and punishment over three thousand years. Baldwin explains that the involvement of the state in law enforcement and crime prevention is relatively recent. In ancient Greece, those struck by lightning were assumed to have been punished by Zeus. In the Hebrew Bible, God was judge, jury, and prosecutor when Cain killed Abel. As the state's power as lawgiver grew, more laws governed behavior than ever before; the sum total of prohibited behavior has grown continuously. At the same time, as family, community, and church exerted their influences, we have become better behaved and more law-abiding. Even as the state stands as the socializer of last resort, it also defines through law the terrain on which we are schooled into acceptable behavior. This title is also available in an Open Access edition

    Trends and Prospects in Geotechnics

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    The Special Issue book presents some works considered innovative in the field of geotechnics and whose practical application may occur in the near future. This collection of twelve papers, in addition to their scientific merit, addresses some of the current and future challenges in geotechnics. The published papers cover a wide range of emerging topics with a specific focus on the research, design, construction, and performance of geotechnical works. These works are expected to inspire the development of geotechnics, contributing to the future construction of more resilient and sustainable geotechnical structures

    Charms and Charming

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    In the book are presented studies of 18 renowned researchers focussing on the verbal aspects of everyday magic, placing in the centre the richest and most poetic manifestation of verbal magic ÔÇô the charm or incantatio. Incantations are in Europe well spread folklore genre, which contain very old magical elemrnts. The book covers wide spectrum of regions, from United Kingdom to Russia and Iran, and includes also Slovenia. The researchers have devoted their attention to phenomenological and theoretical studies of incantatio, and have discussed various topics, from the origin of charms and ancient European magical practices, to the receptions and diffusions of different types of charms

    Challenges and New Trends in Power Electronic Devices Reliability

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    The rapid increase in new power electronic devices and converters for electric transportation and smart grid technologies requires a deepanalysis of their component performances, considering all of the different environmental scenarios, overload conditions, and high stressoperations. Therefore, evaluation of the reliability and availability of these devices becomes fundamental both from technical and economicalpoints of view. The rapid evolution of technologies and the high reliability level offered by these components have shown that estimating reliability through the traditional approaches is difficult, as historical failure data and/or past observed scenarios demonstrate. With the aim topropose new approaches for the evaluation of reliability, in this book, eleven innovative contributions are collected, all focusedon the reliability assessment of power electronic devices and related components

    The Multifaceted Nature of Food and Nutrition Insecurity around the World and Foodservice Business

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    The international concept of food security is a situation where all people have physical, social, and economic access at all times to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. All four parameters (availability, access, utilization, and stability) should therefore be measured to determine food security status.Taking into account these premises, this book aims to present original research articles and reviews concerning the following: Agriculture and food security; Agri-tourism and its potential to assist with food security; BusinessÔÇôscience cooperation to advance food security; Competing demands and tradeoffs for land and water resources; Consumer behavior, nutritional security and food assistance programs; Food and health; Global and local analyses of food security and its drivers; Global governance and food security; Infectious and non-infectious diseases and food security; Reducing food loss and waste; Reducing risks to food production and distribution from climate change; Supply chains and food security; Technological breakthroughs to help feed the globe; Tourism food security relationship; Urbanization, food value chains, and the sustainable, secure sourcing of food; Food and service quality at food catering establishments; Consumer behavior at foodservice operations (restaurants, caf├ęs, hotels)
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