57,208 research outputs found

    A Synergistic Antiobesity Effect by a Combination of Capsinoids and Cold Temperature Through Promoting Beige Adipocyte Biogenesis.

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    Beige adipocytes emerge postnatally within the white adipose tissue in response to certain environmental cues, such as chronic cold exposure. Because of its highly recruitable nature and relevance to adult humans, beige adipocytes have gained much attention as an attractive cellular target for antiobesity therapy. However, molecular circuits that preferentially promote beige adipocyte biogenesis remain poorly understood. We report that a combination of mild cold exposure at 17°C and capsinoids, a nonpungent analog of capsaicin, synergistically and preferentially promotes beige adipocyte biogenesis and ameliorates diet-induced obesity. Gain- and loss-of-function studies show that the combination of capsinoids and cold exposure synergistically promotes beige adipocyte development through the β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway. This synergistic effect on beige adipocyte biogenesis occurs through an increased half-life of PRDM16, a dominant transcriptional regulator of brown/beige adipocyte development. We document a previously unappreciated molecular circuit that controls beige adipocyte biogenesis and suggest a plausible approach to increase whole-body energy expenditure by combining dietary components and environmental cues

    The novel E3 ligase of PPAR?? TRIM25 regulates adipocyte differentiation

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    Department of Biological SciencesPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?? (PPAR??) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor which regulates glucose homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation. Its transcriptional activity is regulated by not only ligands but also post-translational modifications (PTMs). In this study, we demonstrate a novel E3 ligase of PPAR??, TRIM25 directly induces ubiquitination of PPAR?? followed by proteasome-dependent degradation. During the adipocyte differentiation, both mRNA and protein expression of TRIM25 significantly decreased and negatively correlated with the expression of PPAR??. Stable expression of TRIM25 reduces PPAR?? protein levels, but not mRNA expression, and suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, specific knock-down of TRIM25 increases PPAR?? protein levels and stimulates adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, TRIM25 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) shows an increased ability for adipocyte differentiation compared with wild-type MEFs. Taken together, these data indicate that TRIM25 is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase of PPAR??, and depict TRIM25 as a novel target for PPAR??-involved metabolic diseases.ope

    Adipocyte-Like Differentiation in a Posttreatment Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.

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    We describe a 16-year-old boy with rhabdomyosarcoma, consistent with embryonal subtype, of the lower extremity who received systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent excision. Microscopic sections of the postchemotherapy excision demonstrated diffuse, prominent, and immature adipocyte-like differentiation, in addition to skeletal muscle differentiation. Adipocyte-like differentiation was confirmed by a combination of positive Oil Red O and adipophilin immunohistochemical staining. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of an unusual phenomenon of differentiation of a soft tissue rhabdomyosarcoma into adipocyte-like cells after chemotherapy

    In preeclampsia, maternal third trimester subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis is more resistant to suppression by insulin than in healthy pregnancy

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    Obesity increases preeclampsia risk, and maternal dyslipidemia may result from exaggerated adipocyte lipolysis. We compared adipocyte function in preeclampsia with healthy pregnancy to establish whether there is increased lipolysis. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies were collected at caesarean section from healthy (n=31) and preeclampsia (n=13) mothers. Lipolysis in response to isoproterenol (200 nmol/L) and insulin (10 nmol/L) was assessed. In healthy pregnancy, subcutaneous adipocytes had higher diameter than visceral adipocytes (<i>P</i><0.001). Subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte mean diameter in preeclampsia was similar to that in healthy pregnant controls, but cell distribution was shifted toward smaller cell diameter in preeclampsia. Total lipolysis rates under all conditions were lower in healthy visceral than subcutaneous adipocytes but did not differ after normalization for cell diameter. Visceral adipocyte insulin sensitivity was lower than subcutaneous in healthy pregnancy and inversely correlated with plasma triglyceride (<i>r</i>=−0.50; <i>P</i>=0.004). Visceral adipose tissue had lower <i>ADRB3, LPL,</i> and leptin and higher insulin receptor messenger RNA expression than subcutaneous adipose tissue. There was no difference in subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis rates between preeclampsia and healthy controls, but subcutaneous adipocytes had lower sensitivity to insulin in preeclampsia, independent of cell diameter (<i>P</i><0.05). In preeclampsia, visceral adipose tissue had higher <i>LPL</i> messenger RNA expression than subcutaneous. In conclusion, in healthy pregnancy, the larger total mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue may release more fatty acids into the circulation than visceral adipose tissue. Reduced insulin suppression of subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis may increase the burden of plasma fatty acids that the mother has to process in preeclampsia

    Triacylglycerol synthesis in rat adipose tissue : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

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    Adipose tissue consists of two types of cell; the adipocyte and the non-adipocyte {Rodbell, 1964). The adipocyte is unique amongst mammalian cell types in that one class of component {TG) comprises up to 80% of its weight. These TG's constitute the major energy storage material in higher animals. The importance of adipose tissue in mammalian metabolism lies in its ability to store free-fatty acids {FFA) as TG and to release them again according to physiological demands. It is therefore understandable that the pathways of synthesis and degradation should be under strict control. Apart from adipose tissue TG metabolism is especially active in the mammary gland during lactation and in the liver and intestinal mucosa cells during synthesis and secretion of serum lipoproteins. [From Chapter 1

    FAM13A and POM121C are candidate genes for fasting insulin: functional follow-up analysis of a genome-wide association study

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    Aims/hypothesis: By genome-wide association meta-analysis, 17 genetic loci associated with fasting serum insulin (FSI), a marker of systemic insulin resistance, have been identified. To define potential culprit genes in these loci, in a cross-sectional study we analysed white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of 120 genes in these loci in relation to systemic and adipose tissue variables, and functionally evaluated genes demonstrating genotype-specific expression in WAT (eQTLs). Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from 114 women. Basal lipolytic activity was measured as glycerol release from adipose tissue explants. Adipocytes were isolated and insulin-stimulated incorporation of radiolabelled glucose into lipids was used to quantify adipocyte insulin sensitivity. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockout in human mesenchymal stem cells was used for functional evaluation of genes. Results: Adipose expression of 48 of the studied candidate genes associated significantly with FSI, whereas expression of 24, 17 and 2 genes, respectively, associated with adipocyte insulin sensitivity, lipolysis and/or WAT morphology (i.e. fat cell size relative to total body fat mass). Four genetic loci contained eQTLs. In one chromosome 4 locus (rs3822072), the FSI-increasing allele associated with lower FAM13A expression and FAM13A expression associated with a beneficial metabolic profile including decreased WAT lipolysis (regression coefficient, R = −0.50, p = 5.6 × 10−7). Knockdown of FAM13A increased lipolysis by ~1.5- fold and the expression of LIPE (encoding hormone-sensitive lipase, a rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis). At the chromosome 7 locus (rs1167800), the FSI-increasing allele associated with lower POM121C expression. Consistent with an insulin-sensitising function, POM121C expression associated with systemic insulin sensitivity (R = −0.22, p = 2.0 × 10−2), adipocyte insulin sensitivity (R = 0.28, p = 3.4 × 10−3) and adipose hyperplasia (R = −0.29, p = 2.6 × 10−2). POM121C knockdown decreased expression of all adipocyte-specific markers by 25–50%, suggesting that POM121C is necessary for adipogenesis. Conclusions/interpretation: Gene expression and adipocyte functional studies support the notion that FAM13A and POM121C control adipocyte lipolysis and adipogenesis, respectively, and might thereby be involved in genetic control of systemic insulin sensitivity

    COMPLEMENT-MEDIATED ADIPOCYTE LYSIS BY NEPHRITIC FACTOR SERA

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    Recent data indicate a previously unsuspected link between the complement system and adipocyte biology. Murine adipocytes produce key components of the alternative pathway of complement and are able to activate this pathway. This suggested to us an explanation for adipose tissue loss in partial lipodystrophy, a rare human condition usually associated with the immunoglobulin G(IgG) autoantibody nephritic factor (NeF) which leads to enhanced alternative pathway activation in vivo. We hypothesized that in the presence of NeF, there is dysregulated complement activation at the membrane of the adipocyte, leading to adipocyte lysis. Here we show that adipocytes explanted from rat epididymal fat pads are lysed by NeF-containing sera but not by control sera. A similar pattern is seen with IgG fractions of these sera. Adipocyte lysis in the presence of NeF is associated with the generation of fluid-phase terminal complement complexes, the level of which correlates closely with the level of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of cell lysis. Lysis is abolished by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, which chelates divalent cations and prevents complement activation, and reduced by an antibody to factor D, a key component of the alternative pathway. These data provide an explanation for the previously obscure link between NeF and fat cell damage
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