3,290 research outputs found

    Fabrication and characterization of coated ceramic membranes from natural sources for water treatment applications

    Get PDF
    This study aimed to fabricate ceramic membranes for water treatment applications using natural and costeffective materials. This is the first-time white clay, Arabic gum, and marble powder were used in ceramic membranes. Two ceramic membranes were fabricated using an extrusion process: substrate A and substrate B. The JMP software (Version 15) was used to obtain the optimal recipes for the two substrates, which were white clay (62.7 %), silica flour (32.3 %), and Arabic gum (5 %) for substrate A and white clay (63 %), silica flour (26.8 %), and marble powder (10.2 %) for substrate B. Additionally, the effect of waste glass in the coating layer on the separation rate was examined. The ceramic membranes were analysed using various techniques, including X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), laser diffraction particle size analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and a universal testing machine. The morphologies of the membranes were observed using scan electron microscopy (SEM), and their chemical resistances were evaluated. The flux across the substrates was measured using a crossflow filtration system, and it was found that substrate B had a higher flux (116 L/m2 h) than substrate A (77 L/m2 h). This was probably due to its higher porosity (34 %) compared to substrate A (29 %). Substrate A, with a coating layer (CO-2), exhibited the highest removal efficiency of approximately 99.2 % for synthetic feed water composed of tap water and bentonite clay, with an average particle size of 1.1 μm and turbidity of 13 ± 0.2 NTU. The costs of ceramic membranes A and B were estimated to be approximately 51 and 47 USD/m2 , respectively. Their cost-effectiveness results from the use of low-cost materials that do not require high sintering temperatures. This study demonstrates that these ceramic membranes are not only affordable but also possess desirable properties for water treatment applications

    The Odorant Receptor Recognizing Camphor in a Camphor Tree Specialist <i>Orthaga achatina</i> (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    No full text
    Camphor has been used as an effective repellent and pesticide to stored products for a long history, but Orthaga achatina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has evolved to specifically feed on the camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora. However, the behavioral response of O. achatina to camphor and the molecular basis of camphor perception are totally unknown. Here, we demonstrated that both male and female adults were behaviorally attracted to camphor, suggesting the adaptation of O. achatina to and utilization of camphor as a signal of C. camphora. Second, in 40 O. achatina OR genes obtained by analyzing antenna transcriptomes, only OachOR16/Orco significantly responded to camphor in the Xenopus oocyte system. Finally, by molecular docking analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, the Ser209 residue is confirmed to be essential for binding of the oachOR16 with camphor. This study not only reveals the camphor-based host plant choice and olfactory mechanisms of O. achatina but also provides a molecular target for screening more potential insect repellents

    Evaluation of protein sources in snail (Helix aspersa Müller) diets on the antioxidant bioactivity of peptides in meat and slime

    Get PDF
    Objective: This work evaluates the effect of a dietary supply of amaranth, oats and lentils as a protein source on anthropometric measurements, the chemical composition in meat, as well as antioxidant activity in meat peptides and secretion of the snail (Helix aspersa Múller). Design/methodology/approach: We worked with three groups of snails of 36 individuals and a control group fed with the same diet varying the protein source: amaranth, oats and lentils. A sample was taken every seven days and the shell's weight, width and length were measured. Five individuals from each group were sacrificed and the meat from which they were sacrificed was extracted: weight, moisture and protein. The hydrolysis soluble proteins in meat and slime were obtained and the antioxidant activity was measured using the reducing radicals DPPH• and ABTS•. Results: Snail meat was obtained with an increase of more than double in weight when 10% of Am was supplied as a protein source. Likewise, the dimensions of the shell will increase by 5%-11%. In FSM, it was obtained up to 79.8% moisture, 11.2% protein, 1.2% fat and 2.5% collagen. When obtaining snail meat flour, it was reduced to 12±1.9% humidity with up to 24.53 g/g of soluble protein. When hydrolyzing the proteins, it was observed that the peptides obtained presented the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity of 21.58±2.7, 5.45± 1.8, 12.69±1.7 and IC50 of ABTS removal activity 8.86±0.9, 1.62±0.04, 10.84±1.0, for HFSM, HSMF and SS samples, respectively. Limitations on study/implications: It is necessary to carry out other studies on the functionality of snail meat proteins and thus propose their implementation in food formulations to maximize their commercialization. Findings/conclusions: Feeding snails with amaranth helps to increase the quality of protein in fresh meat and flour. Likewise, requests for soluble proteins from beef, flour and secretion are alternatives for preparing functional foods.Objective: This work evaluates the effect of a dietary supply of amaranth, oats and lentils as a protein source on anthropometric measurements, the chemical composition in meat, as well as antioxidant activity in meat peptides and secretion of the snail (Helix aspersa Múller). Design/methodology/approach: We worked with three groups of snails of 36 individuals and a control group fed with the same diet varying the protein source: amaranth, oats and lentils. A sample was taken every seven days and the shell's weight, width and length were measured. Five individuals from each group were sacrificed and the meat from which they were sacrificed was extracted: weight, moisture and protein. The hydrolysis soluble proteins in meat and slime were obtained and the antioxidant activity was measured using the reducing radicals DPPH• and ABTS•. Results: Snail meat was obtained with an increase of more than double in weight when 10% of Am was supplied as a protein source. Likewise, the dimensions of the shell will increase by 5%-11%. In FSM, it was obtained up to 79.8% moisture, 11.2% protein, 1.2% fat and 2.5% collagen. When obtaining snail meat flour, it was reduced to 12±1.9% humidity with up to 24.53 g/g of soluble protein. When hydrolyzing the proteins, it was observed that the peptides obtained presented the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity of 21.58±2.7, 5.45± 1.8, 12.69±1.7 and IC50 of ABTS removal activity 8.86±0.9, 1.62±0.04, 10.84±1.0, for HFSM, HSMF and SS samples, respectively. Limitations on study/implications: It is necessary to carry out other studies on the functionality of snail meat proteins and thus propose their implementation in food formulations to maximize their commercialization. Findings/conclusions: Feeding snails with amaranth helps to increase the quality of protein in fresh meat and flour. Likewise, requests for soluble proteins from beef, flour and secretion are alternatives for preparing functional foods

    Pertumbuhan Berbagai Jenis Bahan Perbanyakan Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia) pada Beberapa Komposisi Media Tanam

    Get PDF
    Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia) merupakan tanaman berkhasiat obat dari famili malvaceae yang masih jarang dibudidayakan. Pengambilan sidaguri dari alam untuk memenuhi kebutuhan industri obat secara terus menerus mengancam keberadaan sidaguri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis bahan perbanyakan, komposisi media tanam, dan interaksi keduanya untuk menghasilkan bibit dengan pertumbuhan optimal dan efisien. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Kelompok Lengkap Teracak (RKLT) faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Terdapat tiga perlakuan jenis bahan perbanyakan yaitu benih, setek batang, dan setek pucuk serta empat komposisi media tanam yaitu tanah, tanah + kompos, tanah + kompos + arang sekam, dan tanah + kompos + pasir (1:1 v/v). Setiap satuan percobaan terdapat 10 tanaman sehingga total terdapat 360 tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perlakuan yang menghasilkan bibit paling baik berdasarkan pengaruh jenis bahan perbanyakan, namun komposisi media tanam dan interaksi kedua faktor tidak menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda nyata. Bahan perbanyakan yang baik digunakan sebagai bahan perbanyak sidaguri yaitu setek batang yang menunjukkan hasil paling baik pada daya tumbuh (56.67%), tinggi tanaman (29.4 cm), dan jumlah cabang (3.5) yang dicapai pada umur 8 MST. Kata kunci: bahan perbanyakan, diferensiasi sel, malvaceace, media tana

    A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS: RESEARCH OF URBAN FARMING IN INDONESIA PERIOD 1991-2023

    Get PDF
    This research is related to urban farming as a major variable in this publication. The aim of this research is to investigate the profile of original scientific articles along with reviews on the topic of urban farming in Indonesia in the period 1991-2023 using bibliometric analysis. Journals related to urban farming in Indonesia published between 1991-2023 are taken from Scopus. The records analyzed and taken from the research material as characteristic of the subsequent quotation containing the distribution of the author's name, year of publication, principal author institution, publisher processed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and VOSviewer v.1.61 are used to create bibliometric diagrams. A total of 81 journals published in Scopus were written by 160 identified authors. The number of published articles continued to increase from 1991 to 2023, with the majority of articles written in English. The most cited article is Aquaculture Research with a 10-year quotation. Visualization analysis based on the accuracy of connected words in titles and abstracts has revealed several groups of research. This research contributes to providing a systematic overview of the productivity and visibility of research projects focused on urban farming in Indonesia, which is expected to be used to organize and prioritize future research.

    Activity Of A Gel Combination Of Pandan Wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb) and Snail Mucus (Achatina Fulica) On Burn Wounds In Male White Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) Wistar Strains

    Get PDF
    Burns are damage to skin tissue due to thermal trauma. This research aimed to determine the combination of Pandan Wangi and snail mucus used to treat burns and determine the optimal formula. The research was pure with only a randomized control design, including F1 being given placebo gel, F1 (10%:10%), F2 (10%:15%), F3 (10%:20%), and F4 being given bioplacenton. The gel evaluation and tested for the ability to treat burns on rats for about 21 days. The combination gel made a homogenous formulation with a pH 6 based on pH paper while pH meter results were around 6,27- 6,35 cm, a spread of 5,70-6,60 cm, and a viscosity value of 5.600-7.600 cps that was stable for 3 weeks of storage. This evaluation’s findings are consistent with the provisions of National Standard Indonesia (SNI). The activity optimal combination gel obtained by examining the average diameter and discoloration were 10%:20% (0,5560 cm), 10%:15% (0,8120 cm), 10%:10% (0,9860 cm), bioplacenton (0,4780 cm), and placebo gel (1,5340 cm). On the 21st day, the skin condition of K1, K2, K3, and K4 was normal, however, K0 was not normal. The statistical analysis data is normally distributed (p≥0,05), homogeneous (p≥0,05), and a significant difference in all groups (p0,05). According to the experiment, three gel combination of Pandan Wangi and snail mucus have an effect on healing burns but 10%:20% (F3) could accelerate the optimal healing process

    Evaluating different diets on the growth performance of mud crab (Scylla serrata)

    Get PDF
    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of natural feeds for the sustainable grow-out aquaculture of mud crabs as an alternative to commercially available mud crab feeds. This study employed a completely randomized design that includes five  feed  treatments including trash fish, African land snail, horn snail, edible frog, and mud snail. There were three replicates for each treatment with three cages each located in a concrete tank with an area of 12m2. Each cage contained one lean crab. The crabs were fed twice a day, at 7 a.m. and 8 p.m. with an amount adjusted to 7% of the crab's body weight. After the first 21 days, all the crabs were harvested by draining out the tank water and the pincers of the crab were tied with a string to enable handling. The results showed that the highest growth performance in weight gain and condition factor was seen in African land snail feed with a feed conversion ratio of 1.38, indicating a high-quality feed. It also showed an impressive ROI of 96.8% which can be confirmed that this kind of feed might be a viable mud crab feed for both commercial scale and industry

    Oxoplastics, Bioplastics, and their Potential of Microplastics Generation (Case Study: Indonesia)

    Get PDF
    Plastics are still becoming popular topic in public news. This was initiated by some sea-animals that was trapped by plastic straws, plastic fishing net, and the other plastic packaging. This plastics problem are starting to become global issue and escalate the awareness of people to reduce the plastics use. Some campaign of reducing plastic use are varied, such as starting a zero-waste lifestyle, banning plastics bags, and the other solution is using degradable plastics. Unfortunately, some of the degradable plastics just become a label and only part of greenwashing product. With the increasing issue of microplastics, this degradable plastics is still seen to be skeptical from some academic perspective. The other solution that becoming popular is using biodegradable plastics or bioplastics. This bioplastic is said to be a better option because it is made from natural substrate that easily degrade, edible, and claimed to be safer for the environment. But this claim is still need further research and also standardization of biodegradability definition. This review will provide about the definition of biodegradable plastics, the differences between oxoplastic and bioplastics; the implementation of bioplastic or oxoplastic product in Indonesia, and issue related to microplastic generatio

    Pengaruh penambahan substrat kulit singkong dengan fermentasi cair terhadap nilai derajat deasetilasi kitosan fungi rhizopus oryzae

    Get PDF
    Abstrak: Kitosan merupakan turunan dari kitin yang didapatkan dengan deasetilasi. Rumus umum kitosan yaitu (C6H9NO3)n atau disebut poli (β-(1,4)-2-amino-2-Deoksi-D-Glukopiranosa). Kitosan terbukti tidak toksik, biocompatibel dan biodegrability. Secara industri, kitosan berasal dari produk limbah crustacea dengan pasokan yang musiman, terbatas dan mencemari lingkungan. Berkembangnya teknologi dan pengetahuan saat ini pemanfaatan kitosan menggunakan limbah produksi hasil alam yang ramah lingkungan dan dapat dijadikan sebagai media produksi kitin, salah satunya dengan menggunakan fungi. Produksi kitosan dari fungi Rhizopus oryzae menggunakan limbah kulit singkong sebagai sumber karbon dengan variasi konsentrasi 0%, 80 % dan 100%. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini difokuskan pada penambahan substrat kulit singkong dengan fermentasi cair untuk mendapatkan berat akhir fungi untuk diekstraksi. Parameter yang diamati setelah ekstraksi yaitu karakterisasi kitosan menggunakan metode Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) guna mengetahui nilai derajat deasetilasi (DD). Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dimana menggunakan desain faktorial untuk mengetahui pengaruh kondisi fermentasi terhadap produksi kitosan fungi dengan tiga perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan. Data dianalisis secara statistik non-parametrik menggunakan Kruskal-Wallis menggunakan software SPSS versi 26. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan biomassa kitosan fungi Rhizopus oryzae menunjukkan konsentrasi 0% sebesar 1,2 g/ml, konsentrasi 80% sebesar 3,8 g/ml dan konsentrasi 100% sebesar 4,8 g/ml. Sedangkan hasil karakteristik kitosan fungi Rhizopus oryzae menunjukkan nilai derajat deasetilasi sebesar 62,41%. ABSTRACT: Chitosan is a derivative of chitin which is obtained by deacetylation. The general formula of chitosan is (C6H9NO3)n or called poly (β-(1,4)-2-amino-2-Deoxy-D-Glucopyranose). Chitosan is proven to be non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegrable. Industrially, chitosan comes from crustacean waste products with seasonal, limited supply and pollutes the environment. The development of technology and current knowledge of the use of chitosan uses the production waste of natural products that are environmentally friendly and can be used as a medium for chitin production, one of which is using fungi. Production of chitosan from the fungus Rhizopus oryzae uses cassava peel waste as a carbon source with various concentrations of 0%, 80%, and 100%. Therefore, this research focused on effect of addition of Cassava peel substrate with submerged fermentation method to obtain the final weight of the fungus to be extracted. The parameters observed after extraction were the characterization of chitosan using the Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) method to determine the degree of deacetylation (DD). This experimental study uses a factorial design to assess the effect of fermentation conditions on the production of chitosan fungi with three treatments and three replications. Data were analyzed by non-parametric statistics using Kruskal-Wallis using SPSS software version 26. The results showed that the chitosan biomass of the fungus Rhizopus oryzae produced a 0% concentration of 1,2 g/ml, an 80% concentration of 3,8 g/ml and a 100% concentration of 4,8 g/ml. While the results of the chitosan characteristics of the Rhizopus oryzae fungus showed a deacetylation degree value of 62,41%. مستخلص البحث الشيتوزان م شتق من الكيتني يتم احلصول عليه عن طريق نزع األسيتيل. الصيغة العامة للكيتوزان هي n)3NO9H6C (أو تسمى -β( ا .)1،4(-2-amino-2-Deoxy-D-Glucopyranose) ا وقابل للتحلل. صناعي ا ثبت أن الشيتوزان غري سام ومتوافق حيواي ، ُشتق الشيتوزان من ن ي فاايت القشرايت ذات اإل مداد املو مسي واحملدود ويلو ث البيئة. ميكن أن يستخدم تطوير التكنولوجيا يف استخدام الشيتوزان ركائز إنتاج منتجات طبيعية صديقة للبيئة كوسائط إلنتاج الكيتني، أي ابستخدام الفطرايت. يستخدم إنتاج الشيتوزان من فطر ريزوبوس أوريزي نفاايت قشر الكسافا كمصدر للكربون مع اختالفات يف الرتكيز بنسبة ٪0 و ٪80 و .٪100 لذلك، ركز هذا البحث على أتثري إضافة ركيزة من قشر الكسافا ابلتخمري السائل للحصول على الوزن النهائي للفطر املراد استخراجه. كانت املعلمات اليت لوحظت بعد االستخراج هي توصيف الشيتوزان ابستخ دام طريق ة جهاز مطياف حتويل فورييه ابألشعة حتت احلمراء (FTIR (لتحديد درجة قيمة ديسيتيليشن (DD(. هذا البحث هو حبث جترييب يستخدم التصميم العاملي لتحديد أتثري ظروف التخمري على إنتاج الشيتوزان الفطري بثالث معامالت و ثالث مكر رات . مت حتليل البياانت غري املعيارية إحصائ ا ا ي ابستخدام كروسكال واليس ابستخدام اإلصدار 26 من برانمج احلزمة اإلحصائية للعلوم االجتماعية )SPSS). أظهرت النتائج أن الكتلة احليوية للكيتو زان لفطر ريزوبوس أوريزي أعطت أفضل النتائج عند ترك يز ٪٠ بنسبة 1،2 جم ⁄ لرت ، ترك يز ٪80 بنسبة ٣،8 جم⁄ لرت و ترك يز ٪100 بنسبة ٤،٥ جم⁄ لرت . بينما أظهرت نتائج خصائص الكيتوزان لفطر ريز و بوس أوريزي قيمة درجة نزع األسيتيل ٪62،٤1

    Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method Indicates Absence of Antimicrobial Properties in Ariolimax columbianus Mucus

    Get PDF
    Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly accelerating epidemic demanding novel approaches. Gastropod mucus has been shown to possess antimicrobial properties and could potentially be used as an ingredient in antibiotic development. However, whether the mucus of Ariolimax columbianus, the banana slug, also displays antimicrobial properties is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the mucus of A. columbianus is resistant to Escherichia coli (E.coli), Streptococcus aureus (S.aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.pneumoniae), three medically relevant strains of bacteria. Specimens were collected from a coniferous forest and isolated for downstream mucus extraction. We spread uniform concentrations of our bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar plates and subjected them to a Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test by treating them with either discs dipped in mucus or discs dipped in mucus and HBSS. Zones of inhibition did not form on the plates after subjecting the bacteria to either treatment. While this study was limited to a few taxa and one experimental approach, our study suggests that gastropod mucus may not have a generalized scope of antimicrobial activity. Rather, antimicrobial activity of mucus may be more specific to taxa encountered by the slugs in their redwood forest habitat. Our results can be used to refine mucus extraction methods for A. columbianus in future studies that seek to investigate the potential of mucus for biotechnological applications
    corecore