156,439 research outputs found

    Natural and Human Impacts Bookmark

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    This bookmark on natural and human impacts on climate includes a Web address for additional information and resources. Educational levels: Middle school, High school, Informal education

    Volcanic Aerosols Bookmark

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    This bookmark on volcanic aerosols provides a Web address for additional information and resources. Educational levels: Middle school, High school, Informal education

    SOCIAL-PRAGMATIC COMMUNICATION IN WOMEN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY

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    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is identified much later and less often in females than in males. Some researchers suspect that a different set of characteristics of ASD in females may not be consistent with the more established and widely recognized characteristics of ASD, leading to under-identification in women. In the present study, four women and one non-binary feminine-presenting person with ASD were interviewed. The five participants conveyed their experiences with social-pragmatic communication, and their views on gender, ASD, and gender differences in ASD. The results are discussed in relationship to the limited amount of past research on women with ASD

    Longitudinal EEG power in the first postnatal year differentiates autism outcomes

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    An aim of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is to identify early biomarkers that inform ASD pathophysiology and expedite detection. Brain oscillations captured in electroencephalography (EEG) are thought to be disrupted as core ASD pathophysiology. We leverage longitudinal EEG power measurements from 3 to 36 months of age in infants at low- and high-risk for ASD to test how and when power distinguishes ASD risk and diagnosis by age 3-years. Power trajectories across the first year, second year, or first three years postnatally were submitted to data-driven modeling to differentiate ASD outcomes. Power dynamics during the first postnatal year best differentiate ASD diagnoses. Delta and gamma frequency power trajectories consistently distinguish infants with ASD diagnoses from others. There is also a developmental shift across timescales towards including higher-frequency power to differentiate outcomes. These findings reveal the importance of developmental timing and trajectory in understanding pathophysiology and classifying ASD outcomes.R01 DC010290 - NIDCD NIH HHS; T32 MH112510 - NIMH NIH HHS; U54 HD090255 - NICHD NIH HHSPublished versio

    Autism with intellectual disability is associated with increased levels of maternal cytokines and chemokines during gestation.

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    Immune abnormalities have been described in some individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) as well as their family members. However, few studies have directly investigated the role of prenatal cytokine and chemokine profiles on neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. In the current study, we characterized mid-gestational serum profiles of 22 cytokines and chemokines in mothers of children with ASD (N=415), developmental delay (DD) without ASD (N=188), and general population (GP) controls (N=428) using a bead-based multiplex technology. The ASD group was further divided into those with intellectual disabilities (developmental/cognitive and adaptive composite score<70) (ASD+ID, N=184) and those without (composite score⩾70) (ASD-noID, N=201). Levels of cytokines and chemokines were compared between groups using multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, birth country and weight, as well as infant gender, birth year and birth month. Mothers of children with ASD+ID had significantly elevated mid-gestational levels of numerous cytokines and chemokines, such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6, compared with mothers of children with either ASD-noID, those with DD, or GP controls. Conversely, mothers of children with either ASD-noID or with DD had significantly lower levels of the chemokines IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with mothers of GP controls. This observed immunologic distinction between mothers of children with ASD+ID from mothers of children with ASD-noID or DD suggests that the intellectual disability associated with ASD might be etiologically distinct from DD without ASD. These findings contribute to the ongoing efforts toward identification of early biological markers specific to subphenotypes of ASD

    Profiling allele-specific gene expression in brains from individuals with autism spectrum disorder reveals preferential minor allele usage.

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    One fundamental but understudied mechanism of gene regulation in disease is allele-specific expression (ASE), the preferential expression of one allele. We leveraged RNA-sequencing data from human brain to assess ASE in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). When ASE is observed in ASD, the allele with lower population frequency (minor allele) is preferentially more highly expressed than the major allele, opposite to the canonical pattern. Importantly, genes showing ASE in ASD are enriched in those downregulated in ASD postmortem brains and in genes harboring de novo mutations in ASD. Two regions, 14q32 and 15q11, containing all known orphan C/D box small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), are particularly enriched in shifts to higher minor allele expression. We demonstrate that this allele shifting enhances snoRNA-targeted splicing changes in ASD-related target genes in idiopathic ASD and 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome. Together, these results implicate allelic imbalance and dysregulation of orphan C/D box snoRNAs in ASD pathogenesis

    Biomass Burning Bookmark

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    This bookmark on biomass burning includes a Web address for additional information and resources. Educational levels: Middle school, High school, Informal education
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