37,901,277 research outputs found

    Ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and the quark-gluon plasma

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    We present an overview of selected aspects of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, a research program devoted to the study of strongly interacting matter at high energy densities and in particular to the characterization of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The basic features of the phase diagram of nuclear matter, as currently understood theoretically, are discussed. The experimental program, carried out over a broad energy domain at various accelerators, is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the global characterization of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Two particular aspects are treated in more detail: i) the application of statistical models to a phenomenological description of particle production and the information it provides on the phase diagram; ii) the production of hadrons carrying charm quarks as messengers from the QGP phase.Comment: Based on lectures given by P.Braun-Munzinger at the VIII Hispalensis International Summer School, Oromana (Seville, Spain), June 9-21, 2003 32 pages, 20 figures. A clickable list of references available at http://www-linux.gsi.de/~andronic/qgp/qgp.htm

    Suppression of charged particle production at large transverse momentum in central Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV

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    Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of primary charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 2.76 TeV have been measured by the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC. The data are presented for central and peripheral collisions, corresponding to 0-5% and 70-80% of the hadronic Pb-Pb cross section. The measured charged particle spectra in η<0.8|\eta|<0.8 and 0.3<pT<200.3 < p_T < 20 GeV/cc are compared to the expectation in pp collisions at the same sNN\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}, scaled by the number of underlying nucleon-nucleon collisions. The comparison is expressed in terms of the nuclear modification factor RAAR_{\rm AA}. The result indicates only weak medium effects (RAAR_{\rm AA} \approx 0.7) in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, RAAR_{\rm AA} reaches a minimum of about 0.14 at pT=6p_{\rm T}=6-7GeV/cc and increases significantly at larger pTp_{\rm T}. The measured suppression of high-pTp_{\rm T} particles is stronger than that observed at lower collision energies, indicating that a very dense medium is formed in central Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.Comment: 15 pages, 5 captioned figures, 3 tables, authors from page 10, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/98

    Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

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    We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η\eta|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2< pTp_{\rm T}< 5.0 GeV/cc. The elliptic flow signal v2_2, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.004 (syst) in the 40-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v2(pT)_2(p_{\rm T}) reaches a maximum of 0.2 near pTp_{\rm T} = 3 GeV/cc. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.Comment: 10 pages, 4 captioned figures, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/389

    Transport of a quantum degenerate heteronuclear Bose-Fermi mixture in a harmonic trap

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    We report on the transport of mixed quantum degenerate gases of bosonic 87Rb and fermionic 40K in a harmonic potential provided by a modified QUIC trap. The samples are transported over a distance of 6 mm to the geometric center of the anti-Helmholtz coils of the QUIC trap. This transport mechanism was implemented by a small modification of the QUIC trap and is free of losses and heating. It allows all experiments using QUIC traps to use the highly homogeneous magnetic fields that can be created in the center of a QUIC trap and improves the optical access to the atoms, e.g., for experiments with optical lattices. This mechanism may be cascaded to cover even larger distances for applications with quantum degenerate samples.Comment: 7 pages, 8 figure

    High-contrast dark resonance on the D2 - line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump - probe waves

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    We propose a novel method enabling to create a high-contrast dark resonance in the 87Rb vapor D2-line. The method is based on an optical pumping of atoms into the working states by a two-frequency, linearly-polarized laser radiation propagating perpendicularly to the probe field. This new scheme is compared to the traditional scheme involving the circularly-polarized probe beam only, and significant improvement of the dark resonance parameters is found. Qualitative considerations are confirmed by numerical calculations.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV

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    The first measurement of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. We observe a growing trend with energy now not only for the longitudinal and the outward but also for the sideward pion source radius. The pion homogeneity volume and the decoupling time are significantly larger than those measured at RHIC.Comment: 17 pages, 5 captioned figures, 1 table, authors from page 12, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/388