1,019,504 research outputs found

    Multiple testing, uncertainty and realistic pictures

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    We study statistical detection of grayscale objects in noisy images. The object of interest is of unknown shape and has an unknown intensity, that can be varying over the object and can be negative. No boundary shape constraints are imposed on the object, only a weak bulk condition for the object's interior is required. We propose an algorithm that can be used to detect grayscale objects of unknown shapes in the presence of nonparametric noise of unknown level. Our algorithm is based on a nonparametric multiple testing procedure. We establish the limit of applicability of our method via an explicit, closed-form, non-asymptotic and nonparametric consistency bound. This bound is valid for a wide class of nonparametric noise distributions. We achieve this by proving an uncertainty principle for percolation on finite lattices.Comment: This paper initially appeared in January 2011 as EURANDOM Report 2011-004. Link to the abstract at EURANDOM Repository: http://www.eurandom.tue.nl/reports/2011/004-abstract.pdf Link to the paper at EURANDOM Repository: http://www.eurandom.tue.nl/reports/2011/004-report.pd

    The Effect of Multiple Formats on Understanding Complex Visual Displays

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    Provides pedagogical insight concerning the skill of contours The resource being annotated is: http://www.dlese.org/dds/catalog_DLESE-000-000-004-595.htm

    A Formative Assessment of Geologic Time for High School Earth Science Students

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    Provides pedagogical insight concerning the assessment strategy using formative assessment The resource being annotated is: http://www.dlese.org/dds/catalog_DLESE-000-000-004-784.htm

    Multi-loop open string amplitudes and their field theory limit

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    JHEP is an open-access journal funded by SCOAP3 and licensed under CC BY 4.0This work was supported by STFC (Grant ST/J000469/1, ‘String theory, gauge theory & duality’) and by MIUR (Italy) under contracts 2006020509 004 and 2010YJ2NYW 00

    Dating climatic change in hot deserts using desert varnish on meteorite finds

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    A thin coating of desert varnish occurs on Forrest 009 and Nurina 004, both equilibrated ordinary chondrite (L6) finds from the Nullarbor Plain, Australia. This finely laminated deposit is chemically and petrographically comparable to the varnish found on terrestrial rocks. Forrest 009, which has a terrestrial age of 5.9 kyr, has a 100-130 micrometre thick coating of desert varnish that has a laterally consistent chemical microstratigraphy comprising a narrow Ba- and Mn-poor lower region, a thick Ba- and Mn-rich central area and a narrow outer zone almost devoid of both cations. The interior of the meteorite contains Fe-oxide and oxyhydroxide veins that have formed by chemical weathering of metals and sulphides. As these veins do not cross-cut the varnish, it must have accreted rapidly relative to the weathering rate of the meteorite. The less than or equal to 70 mum thick varnish on Nurina 004, which has a terrestrial age of 33.4 kyr, lacks a consistent chemical microstratigraphy, but it is cross-cut by Fe-oxide and oxyhydroxide veins, some of which have supplied Fe to the varnish. This implies that the chemical weathering rate of Nurina 004's interior was slow in comparison to the accretion rate of the varnish. The petrography and chemical composition of varnish on Forrest 009 indicates that this meteorite may have resided in a relatively humid environment for most of its 5.9 kyr terrestrial history and that the Nullarbor recently became more arid. This conclusion supports results from an analysis of Fe-bearing weathering products in the interior of the meteorite by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which also indicate that Forrest 009 experienced an early period of rapid weathering under relatively humid conditions. The petrography of varnish on Nurina 004 shows that the interior of the meteorite weathered relatively slowly, probably because it fell during an and time, which is again in agreement with previous Mossbauer spectroscopy results. Results from both meteorites are in agreement with palaeoclimate data derived from a number of other proxies. The implications of this work are that the large number of meteorites that have been collected from several hot deserts of the world may be a powerful source of information on climate change over the last 30-35 kyr

    Mixing and Combustion of Rich Fireballs

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    A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the effect of fireball composition on secondary combustion. The fireball was created from a 1.5 liter balloon filled with a propane-oxygen mixture (1 1, the incompletely oxidized products from the primary burn mix with the surrounding air and may be oxidized in a secondary combustion process. The unique feature of the present experiments was a repeatable secondary pressure pulse for sufficiently rich mixtures. The secondary pressure rise was observed repeatably for all initiation configurations. The nature of the secondary pressure pulse is a strong function of the initial equivalence ratio. For [Greek Phi] = 1 and 1.5, no secondary pressure waves are observed. An acoustic analysis of the measured pressure histories has been carried out to infer the rate of volume displacement and the total volume displaced by the secondary combustion. The results of the acoustic analysis are in reasonable agreement with both a simplified thermodynamic model predicting the total volume displacement assuming constant-pressure combustion for the secondary burn and the analysis of the fireball luminosity of the high-speed images. For nearly stoichiometric mixtures, [Greek Phi] = 1 and 1.5, the leading blast wave peak pressures and impulses are comparable with the previously-measured gaseous and high explosive blasts when the energy content of the balloon only is used to formulate Sachs scaling variables. Due to a much slower combustion process than detonation for [Greek Phi] >2 the peak pressure of the leading wave rapidly decreases below the energy-equivalent reference blast values as the equivalence ratio is increased. The Sachs-scaled impulse agrees well with the predictions on the basis of the energy in the balloon alone for 2.75 > [Greek Phi] > 1. One of the key results of the present study has been the documentation of the existence of the secondary pressure wave. The present study has emphasized the acoustic nature of the secondary pressure waves and the origin of these pressure waves due to the processes at the interface between the fireball and the atmosphere. The presence of the secondary pressure peak and the higher impulses indicate that there is the potential for significant enhancement of the blast through secondary combustion