33,861 research outputs found

    Expressing the human proteome for affinity proteomics: optimising expression of soluble protein domains and in vivo biotinylation

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    The generation of affinity reagents to large numbers of human proteins depends on the ability to express the target proteins as high-quality antigens. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) focuses on the production and structure determination of human proteins. In a 7-year period, the SGC has deposited crystal structures of >800 human protein domains, and has additionally expressed and purified a similar number of protein domains that have not yet been crystallised. The targets include a diversity of protein domains, with an attempt to provide high coverage of protein families. The family approach provides an excellent basis for characterising the selectivity of affinity reagents. We present a summary of the approaches used to generate purified human proteins or protein domains, a test case demonstrating the ability to rapidly generate new proteins, and an optimisation study on the modification of >70 proteins by biotinylation in vivo. These results provide a unique synergy between large-scale structural projects and the recent efforts to produce a wide coverage of affinity reagents to the human proteome

    Stochastic single-molecule dynamics of synaptic membrane protein domains

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    Motivated by single-molecule experiments on synaptic membrane protein domains, we use a stochastic lattice model to study protein reaction and diffusion processes in crowded membranes. We find that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic proteins provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the single-molecule trajectories observed for synaptic proteins, and spatially inhomogeneous protein lifetimes at the cell membrane. Our results suggest that central aspects of the single-molecule and collective dynamics observed for membrane protein domains can be understood in terms of stochastic reaction-diffusion processes at the cell membrane.Comment: Main text (7 pages, 4 figures, 1 table) and supplementary material (3 pages, 3 figures

    Quadruple context-free L-System mathematical tools as origin of biological evolution

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    It is well known that A, T, G, C annealed together early in evolution and the long stretch of DNA was found which ultimately resulted into chromosomes of different organisms. But it is unclear till date how exons, introns, conserved protein domains was formed. Using the DNA sequences of the largest known gene-family present in human genome, i.e., olfactory receptors and simplest possible quadruple context-free L-Systems, we show that conserved protein domains and intergenic regions which lies at the heart of the biological evolution started with a sixteen base-pairs stretch of DNA

    Universal Features in the Genome-level Evolution of Protein Domains

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    Protein domains are found on genomes with notable statistical distributions, which bear a high degree of similarity. Previous work has shown how these distributions can be accounted for by simple models, where the main ingredients are probabilities of duplication, innovation, and loss of domains. However, no one so far has addressed the issue that these distributions follow definite trends depending on protein-coding genome size only. We present a stochastic duplication/innovation model, falling in the class of so-called Chinese Restaurant Processes, able to explain this feature of the data. Using only two universal parameters, related to a minimal number of domains and to the relative weight of innovation to duplication, the model reproduces two important aspects: (a) the populations of domain classes (the sets, related to homology classes, containing realizations of the same domain in different proteins) follow common power-laws whose cutoff is dictated by genome size, and (b) the number of domain families is universal and markedly sublinear in genome size. An important ingredient of the model is that the innovation probability decreases with genome size. We propose the possibility to interpret this as a global constraint given by the cost of expanding an increasingly complex interactome. Finally, we introduce a variant of the model where the choice of a new domain relates to its occurrence in genomic data, and thus accounts for fold specificity. Both models have general quantitative agreement with data from hundreds of genomes, which indicates the coexistence of the well-known specificity of proteomes with robust self-organizing phenomena related to the basic evolutionary ``moves'' of duplication and innovation

    InterProScan: protein domains identifier

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    InterProScan [E. M. Zdobnov and R. Apweiler (2001) Bioinformatics, 17, 847–848] is a tool that combines different protein signature recognition methods from the InterPro [N. J. Mulder, R. Apweiler, T. K. Attwood, A. Bairoch, A. Bateman, D. Binns, P. Bradley, P. Bork, P. Bucher, L. Cerutti et al. (2005) Nucleic Acids Res., 33, D201–D205] consortium member databases into one resource. At the time of writing there are 10 distinct publicly available databases in the application. Protein as well as DNA sequences can be analysed. A web-based version is accessible for academic and commercial organizations from the EBI (). In addition, a standalone Perl version and a SOAP Web Service [J. Snell, D. Tidwell and P. Kulchenko (2001) Programming Web Services with SOAP, 1st edn. O'Reilly Publishers, Sebastopol, CA, ] are also available to the users. Various output formats are supported and include text tables, XML documents, as well as various graphs to help interpret the results

    Family-specific scaling laws in bacterial genomes

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    Among several quantitative invariants found in evolutionary genomics, one of the most striking is the scaling of the overall abundance of proteins, or protein domains, sharing a specific functional annotation across genomes of given size. The size of these functional categories change, on average, as power-laws in the total number of protein-coding genes. Here, we show that such regularities are not restricted to the overall behavior of high-level functional categories, but also exist systematically at the level of single evolutionary families of protein domains. Specifically, the number of proteins within each family follows family-specific scaling laws with genome size. Functionally similar sets of families tend to follow similar scaling laws, but this is not always the case. To understand this systematically, we provide a comprehensive classification of families based on their scaling properties. Additionally, we develop a quantitative score for the heterogeneity of the scaling of families belonging to a given category or predefined group. Under the common reasonable assumption that selection is driven solely or mainly by biological function, these findings point to fine-tuned and interdependent functional roles of specific protein domains, beyond our current functional annotations. This analysis provides a deeper view on the links between evolutionary expansion of protein families and the functional constraints shaping the gene repertoire of bacterial genomes.Comment: 41 pages, 16 figure

    Human Pathogenic Mutations in Protein Domains

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