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    AGN Feedback models: Correlations with star formation and observational implications of time evolution

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    We examine the correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) across a suite of different AGN feedback models, using the time evolution of a merger simulation. By considering three different stages of evolution, and a distinction between the nuclear and outer regions of star formation, we consider 63 different cases. Despite many of the feedback models fitting the M-\sigma\ relationship well, there are often distinct differences in the SFR-BHAR correlations, with close to linear trends only being present after the merger. Some of the models also show evolution in the SFR-BHAR parameter space that is at times directly across the long-term averaged SFR-BHAR correlation. This suggests that the observational SFR-BHAR correlation found for ensembles of galaxies is an approximate statistical trend, as suggested by Hickox et al. Decomposing the SFR into nuclear and outer components also highlights notable differences between models and there is only modest agreement with observational studies examining this in Seyfert galaxies. For the fraction of the black hole mass growth from the merger event relative to the final black hole mass, we find as much as a factor of three variation among models. This also translates into a similar variation in the post-starburst black hole mass growth. Overall, we find that while qualitative features are often similar amongst models, precise quantitative analysis shows there can be quite distinct differences.Comment: Accepted to MNRAS. Comments welcom

    Application of Suction-cup-attached VHF Transmitters to the Study of Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, Surfacing Behavior in Cook Inlet, Alaska

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    Suction-cup-attached VHF radio transmittes were deployed on belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska, in 1994 and 1995 to characterize the whales' surfacing behavior. Data from video recordings were also used to characterize behavior of undisturbed whales and whales actively pursued for tagging. Statistics for dive intervals (time between the midpoints of contiguous surfacings) and surfacing intevals (time at the surface per surfacing) were estimated. Operations took place on the tidal delta of the Susitna and Little Susitna Rivers. During the 2-yr study, eight whales were successfully tagged, five tags remained attached for >60 min, and data from these were used in the analyses. Mean dive interval was 24.1 sec (interwhale SD=6.4 sec, n=5). The mean surfacing interval, as determined from the duration of signals received from the radio transmitters, was 1.8 sec (SD=0.3 sec, n=125) for one of the whales. Videotaped behaviors were categorized as "head-lifts" or "slow-rolls." Belugas were more likely to head-lift than to slow-roll during vessel approaches and tagging attempts when compared to undisturbed whales. In undisturbed groups, surfacing intervals determined from video records were significantly different between head-lifting (average = 1.02 sect, SD=0.38 sed, n=28) and slow-rolling whales (average = 2.45 sec, SD=0.37 sec, n=106). Undisturbed juveniles exhibited shorter slow-roll surfacing intervals (average = 2.25 sec, SD=0.32 sec, n=36) than adults (average = 2.55 sec, SD=0.36 sec, n=70). We did not observe strong reactions by the belugas to the suction-cup tags. This tagging method shows promise for obtaining surfacing data for durations of several days