8 research outputs found

    Diversity of lichens and allied fungi on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the middle boreal forests of Republic of Karelia (Russia)

    Get PDF
    A detailed study of lichen diversity and estimation of epiphytic lichen cover characteristics on spruce as a key ecosystem component was performed in boreal forests of Karelia (NW Russia). The aims of the present paper are: (1) to study lichen diversity on Norway spruce in the middle boreal forests of southern Karelia (NW Russia), and (2) to estimate the main characteristics of epiphytic lichen cover on spruce trunks and branches. In total, 158 species of lichens and allied fungi were found on spruce, including 108 species on trunks, 78 on branches and 55 on snags. Seventeen species are listed in the Red Data Book of Republic of Karelia. Ten species are new for the biogeographical province Karelia transonegensis and two for the province Karelia onegensis. Twenty-two species are considered old-growth forest indicators. The total epiphytic lichen cover on spruce trees averaged 59% at the trunk base, 12% at a height of 1.3 m above ground level and 61% on branches. Predominantly, only 12 species contributed to the lichen cover of trunk and branches. Despite the predominance of crustose lichens colonising spruce trees, the main epiphytic lichen cover both on trunks and branches was provided largely by foliose species (57% of the total cover). Due to a variety of morphological features, spruce provides diverse microhabitats, which leads to high lichen species richness with different ecological requirements. Spruce trees play a significant role in maintaining the diversity and conservation of rare species

    Thermal Raman study of Li4Ti5O12 and discussion about the number of its characteristic bands

    Full text link
    Lithium battery industry is booming, and this fast growth should be supported by developing industry friendly tools to control the quality of positive and negative electrode materials. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be a cost effective and sensitive instrument to study defects and heterogeneities in lithium titanate, popular negative electrode material for high power applications, but there are still some points to be clarified. This work presents a detailed thermal Raman study for lithium titanate and discusses the difference of the number of predicted and experimentally observed Raman-active bands. The low temperature study and the analysis of thermal shifts of bands positions during heating let us to conclude about advantages of the proposed approach with surplus bands and recommend using shifts of major band to estimate the sample heating

    Species richness and structure variations of Scots pine forest communities during the period from 5 to 210 years after fire.

    No full text
    Part II BiodiversityPostfire recovery of species diversity (including a number of species, entropy of species relative coverage (Shannon index of species diversity) was studied in lichen and green moss site types of Scots pine forests in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. The results obtained indicate the difference in the dynamics of characteristics of biodiversity of forest components during postfire recovery. The stabilization of separate components of forest community varies in time from 5–15 to 120–140 years after the fire. Characteristics of the dwarf shrub and herb stratum recovered and stabilized 5–15 years after fire, while the complete stabilization of characteristics of moss-lichen cover is observed in community with fire ages of 90–140 years. Species richness of tree stratum recovered 120–140 years after fire. Time of complete stabilization of species richness of the community was estimated 120–140 years after fire. The size of the area over which characteristics of the biodiversity were estimated effected the mean values and, in most cases, the character of variation of studied characteristics. Over an area of 1 x 1 m dynamics of characteristics of species diversity coincide in forests of the studied types. Regardless of forest type within the area of 100 m2 species richness recovered 30 years after the fire (i.e 3–5 times earlier than the establishment of the complete stabilization of the forest structure). That means that floristic composition of the forest remained unchanged from 30 to 210 years after the fire

    How valid are the biological and ecological principles underpinning Global Change science?

    No full text
    The prevailing scientific approach to investigating and understanding the environmental consequences of human-induced global change is underpinned by two basic biological principles. First, the principle that species genetically adapt to changing environment conditions. Second, the principle that nutrients present in the environment in the smallest relative concentrations limit biological productivity. We contend that both principles have been formulated based on the results of investigations into either artificially selected organisms, or anthropogenically perturbed landscapes. In both these cases, organisms are studied outside their natural ecological niche. We argue that natural ecosystems do not conform to the above two principles. Non-perturbed biota of natural ecological communities form and maintain optimal environment conditions by buffering the flux of primary environmental resources that would otherwise randomly fluctuate as the result of purely physical processes. In such a biotically-mediated environment the availability of nutrients does not limit biological productivity. Critically, the capacity of the biota to regulate local environment conditions obviates the need for species to continually adapt to random environmental fluctuations. We illustrate how the failure to distinguish between the functioning of perturbed and unperturbed biota prevents the development of policies and strategies that will lead to the long term resolution of the global ecological crisis

    Postfire recovery of forest litter in Scots pine forests in two different regions of boreal zone.

    No full text
    Part I Climate ChangeInvestigations carried out in the Kola peninsula (northern taiga) and in the South-western part of Western Siberia (southern taiga and forest-steppe) revealed identical course of the postfire restoration process of forest litter thickness in Scots pine forests. Despite the differences in mean annual temperature (2 °C) and other climatic characteristics the recovery time for thickness of forest litter in both regions amounts to 90–100 years after fire in pine forests of lichen site type and 120–140 years – in green moss type; the thickness of forest litter therewith corresponds 3–4 cm and 7–8 cm respectively. That means that within the natural borders of pine forests, communities of a specific type possess uniform characteristics of restoration. On the basis of empirical data it appears that the predicted increase of mean annual temperature of earth surface by (2 °C) will not bring changes into the character of postfire recovery of forest litter thickness. It was shown that during the period of the recovery, which spans about 90 years after fire in pine forests of lichen and green moss–lichen site types and 140 years in ones of green moss site types, the rate of increasing of carbon store in the forest litter averaged 0.6 t ha–1 year–1, 0.1 t ha–1 year–1 and 0.2 t ha–1 year–1, respectively