1,842 research outputs found


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    Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,

    Induced junction solar cell and method of fabrication

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    An induced junction solar cell is fabricated on a p-type silicon substrate by first diffusing a grid of criss-crossed current collecting n+ stripes and thermally growing a thin SiO2 film, and then, using silicon-rich chemical vapor deposition (CVD), producing a layer of SiO2 having inherent defects, such as silicon interstices, which function as deep traps for spontaneous positive charges. Ion implantation increases the stable positive charge distribution for a greater inversion layer in the p-type silicon near the surface. After etching through the oxide to parallel collecting stripes, a pattern of metal is produced consisting of a set of contact stripes over the exposed collecting stripes and a diamond shaped pattern which functions as a current collection bus. Then the reverse side is metallized

    Impacts of Fat and Cholesterol Information On Consumer Demand: Application of New Indexes

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    Consumers' beliefs in the benefits of reducing fat intakes, especially saturated fat, and of increasing calcium intake from such foods as dairy products, depend upon the acquired information related to diet and health. This study develops new health information measures from different sources. The monthly information indexes, constructed for 1980-93, show that the amount of consumer information related to fat and cholesterol in circulation reached the highest levels during 1989-90. The results from an empirical application show that these new indexes of consumer health information about fats and cholesterol could explain the changing patterns of consumer choice for whole milk vs. lower fat milk in the United States.Demand and Price Analysis,


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    A telephone survey was conducted on genetically modified foods in the U.S. Consumers' attitudes are studied using a multiple correspondence analysis, and typology constructed through the use of a cluster analysis. Five distinct behaviors are extracted.Consumer/Household Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,

    Econometric Analysis of Rising Body Mass Index in the U.S.: 1996 versus 2002

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    Currently over 30% of American adults are obese, more than twice the percentage prevalent in 1980 (American Obesity Association). At the same time, almost 65% adult Americans are said to be overweight. Such high prevalence levels are a major public health concern. Both overweight and obesity are associated with increased health risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, fatty liver disease and some forms of cancer. In this paper we explore the factors that contribute to increasing rates of obesity and overweight, and study the differences in years 1996 and 2002. We use a multilevel econometric approach to model the four classifications of body mass index (BMI) obese, overweight, healthy and underweight - as a function of individual characteristics, lifestyle indicators and external environment. The results are reasonably consistent within the two years and with findings from previous studies. However, three significant differences are found between the two years at the state-level. Two of them are completely new findings. Higher urban residency is associated with lower rates of overweight and obesity. On the other hand, higher participation in food-stamp programs in the more recent year is associated with increasing prevalence of obesity. Excise tax on cigarettes also has a positive association with obesity only. Previous studies have uses either per-capita sales of restaurants, or price of meals available in fast-food and full-service restaurants. We explored a new variable density of fast-food and full-service restaurants serving meals over a wide price range. Such a variable is used to not only capture the importance of difference between fast-food restaurants and full-service restaurants, but to also distinguish between the effects of lower-priced and higher-priced meals. We find that lower-priced food from fast-food restaurants has positive effect, and higher-priced food from full-service restaurants has negative effect. Three new individual-level lifestyle predictors have been added, and they all seem to be significant in explaining the weight outcomes. Inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, irregular or no exercise, and poor self-reported health status are all significantly associated with increasing rates of overweight and obesity.Health Economics and Policy,


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    Researchers believe that rice in developed countries such as Japan became an inferior good a few decades ago. This study employs the flexible complete demand system for the recent cross-sectional data in Japan. Our results clearly show that rice in Japan is a normal good contrary to the preceding studies. The objective of this research is to analyze the food consumption patterns and to conduct econometric analysis of food demand structure. We use the monthly basis cross-sectional household data, Annual Report on the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) in 1997. Food items are non-glutinous rice, bread, noodle, fresh fish, and shellfish, fresh meat, milk, eggs, fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, fats and oil, and food away from home. We apply various single equation models: Working-Leser model is estimated by OLS, Heckman's two-step estimator, and Tobit estimator. All coefficients have correct signs and are statistically significant. For the complete demand system analysis, we apply the almost ideal demand (AIDS) system. To correct a censored dependent variable problem, we additionally utilize a censored regression approach. Results from AIDS models show that the expenditure elasticity of rice is positive and close to one. Marshallian and Hicksian own-price elasticities for rice are highly elastic for all models. Fresh meats and rice are mild complements in all models; however, fresh fish and rice show the mixed results.AIDS model, Cross-section, Income Elasticity, Japan, Rice Consumption, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,