100 research outputs found

    APEX/SABOCA observations of small-scale structure of infrared-dark clouds I. Early evolutionary stages of star-forming cores

    Get PDF
    Infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) harbor the early phases of cluster and high-mass star formation and are comprised of cold (~20 K), dense (n > 104^4 cm3^{-3}) gas. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of IRDCs is dominated by the far-infrared and millimeter wavelength regime, and our initial Herschel study examined IRDCs at the peak of the SED with high angular resolution. Here we present a follow-up study using the SABOCA instrument on APEX which delivers 7.8" angular resolution at 350 micron, matching the resolution we achieved with Herschel/PACS, and allowing us to characterize substructure on ~0.1pc scales. Our sample of 11 nearby IRDCs are a mix of filamentary and clumpy morphologies, and the filamentary clouds show significant hierarchical structure, while the clumpy IRDCs exhibit little hierarchical structure. All IRDCs, regardless of morphology, have about 14% of their total mass in small scale core-like structures which roughly follow a trend of constant volume density over all size scales. Out of the 89 protostellar cores we identified in this sample with Herschel, we recover 40 of the brightest and re-fit their SEDs and find their properties agree fairly well with our previous estimates ( ~ 19K). We detect a new population of "cold cores" which have no 70 micron counterpart, but are 100 and 160 micron-bright, with colder temperatures ( ~ 16K). This latter population, along with SABOCA-only detections, are predominantly low-mass objects, but their evolutionary diagnostics are consistent with the earliest starless or prestellar phase of cores in IRDCs.Comment: accepted to A&A. 28 pages, 27 figures. For full-resolution image gallery, see http://www.mpia.de/~ragan/saboca.html (v2 includes only minor typographical corrections, changed to agree with published version

    Structure and Fragmentation of a high line-mass filament: Nessie

    Get PDF
    An increasing number of hundred-parsec scale, high line-mass filaments have been detected in the Galaxy. Their evolutionary path, including fragmentation towards star formation, is virtually unknown. We characterize the fragmentation within the Nessie filament, covering size-scales between \sim 0.1-100 pc. We also connect the small-scale fragments to the star-forming potential of the cloud. We combine near-infrared data from the VVV survey with mid-infrared GLIMPSE data to derive a high-resolution dust extinction map and apply a wavelet decomposition technique on it to analyze the fragmentation characteristics of the cloud, which are compared with predictions from fragmentation models. We compare the detected objects to those identified in \sim 10 times coarser resolution from ATLASGAL data. We present a high-resolution extinction map of Nessie. We estimate the mean line-mass of Nessie to be \sim 627 M_\odot/pc and the distance to be \sim 3.5 kpc. We find that Nessie shows fragmentation at multiple size scales. The nearest-neighbour separations of the fragments at all scales are within a factor of 2 of the Jeans' length at that scale. However, the relationship between the mean densities of the fragments and their separations is significantly shallower than expected for Jeans' fragmentation. The relationship is similar to the one predicted for a filament that exhibits a Larson-like scaling between size-scale and velocity dispersion; such a scaling may result from turbulent support. Based on the number of YSOs in Nessie, we estimate that the star formation rate is \sim 371 M_\odot/Myr; similar values result if using the number of dense cores, or the amount of dense gas, as the proxy of star formation. The star formation efficiency is 0.017. These numbers indicate that Nessie's star-forming content is comparable to the Solar neighborhood giant molecular clouds like Orion A

    Radiation pressure feedback in the formation of massive stars

    Full text link
    We investigate the radiation pressure feedback in the formation of massive stars in 1, 2, and 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores. In contrast to previous research, we consider frequency dependent stellar radiation feedback, resolve the dust sublimation front in the vicinity of the forming star down to 1.27 AU, compute the evolution for several 10^5 yrs covering the whole accretion phase of the forming star, and perform a comprehensive survey of the parameter space. The most fundamental result is that the formation of a massive accretion disk in slowly rotating cores preserves a high anisotropy in the radiation field. The thermal radiation escapes through the optically thin atmosphere, effectively diminishing the radiation pressure feedback onto the accretion flow. Gravitational torques in the self-gravitating disk drive a sufficiently high accretion rate to overcome the residual radiation pressure. Simultaneously, the radiation pressure launches an outflow in the bipolar direction, which grows in angle with time and releases a substantial fraction of the initial core mass from the star-disk system. Summarized, for an initial core mass of 60, 120, 240, and 480 Msol these mechanisms allow the star to grow up to 28.2, 56.5, 92.6, and at least 137.2 Msol respectively.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, Proceedings of the 39th Liege International Astrophysical Colloquium: The multi-wavelength view of Hot, Massive Star

    Circumventing the radiation pressure barrier in the formation of massive stars via disk accretion

    Full text link
    We present radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores. We treat frequency dependent radiative feedback from stellar evolution and accretion luminosity at a numerical resolution down to 1.27 AU. In the 2D approximation of axially symmetric simulations, it is possible for the first time to simulate the whole accretion phase (up to the end of the accretion disk epoch) for the forming massive star and to perform a broad scan of the parameter space. Our simulation series show evidently the necessity to incorporate the dust sublimation front to preserve the high shielding property of massive accretion disks. While confirming the upper mass limit of spherically symmetric accretion, our disk accretion models show a persistent high anisotropy of the corresponding thermal radiation field. This yields to the growth of the highest-mass stars ever formed in multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations, far beyond the upper mass limit of spherical accretion. Non-axially symmetric effects are not necessary to sustain accretion. The radiation pressure launches a stable bipolar outflow, which grows in angle with time as presumed from observations. For an initial mass of the pre-stellar host core of 60, 120, 240, and 480 Msun the masses of the final stars formed in our simulations add up to 28.2, 56.5, 92.6, and at least 137.2 Msun respectively.Comment: 55 pages, 24 figures, accepted at Ap

    Disk Kinematics and Stability in High-Mass Star Formation: Linking Simulations and Observations

    Full text link
    In the disk-mediated accretion scenario for the formation of the most massive stars, gravitational instabilities in the disk can force it to fragment. We investigate the effects of inclination and spatial resolution on observable kinematics and stability of disks in high-mass star formation. We study a high-resolution 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulation that leads to the fragmentation of a massive disk. Using RADMC-3D we produce 1.3 mm continuum and CH3CN line cubes at different inclinations. The model is set to different distances and synthetic observations are created for ALMA at ~80 mas resolution and NOEMA at ~0.3''. The synthetic ALMA observations resolve all fragments and their kinematics well. The synthetic NOEMA observations at 800 pc (~300 au resolution) are able to resolve the fragments, while at 2000 pc (~800 au resolution) only a single slightly elongated structure is observed. The position-velocity (PV) plots show the differential rotation of material best in the edge-on views. As the observations become less resolved, the inner high-velocity components of the disk become blended with the envelope and the PV plots resemble rigid-body-like rotation. Protostellar mass estimates from PV plots of poorly resolved observations are therefore overestimated. We fit the emission of CH3CN lines and produce maps of gas temperature with values in the range of 100-300 K. Studying the Toomre stability of the disks in the resolved observations, we find Q values below the critical value for stability against gravitational collapse at the positions of the fragments and the arms connecting the fragments. For the poorly resolved observations we find low Q values in the outskirts of the disk. Therefore we are able to predict that the disk is unstable and fragmenting even in poorly resolved observations. This conclusion is true regardless of knowledge about the inclination of the disk.Comment: 21 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics - corrected captions of Fig. 13 & 1

    Unveiling the nature and interaction of the intermediate/high-mass YSOs in IRAS 20343+4129

    Full text link
    In order to elucidate the nature of the brightest infrared sources associated with IRAS 20343+4129, IRS1 and IRS3, we observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) the 1.3 mm continuum and CO(2-1) emission of the region. Faint millimeter dust continuum emission was detected toward IRS1, and we derived an associated gas mass of ~0.8 Msun. The IRS1 spectral energy distribution agrees with IRS1 being an intermediate-mass Class I source of about 1000 Lsun, whose circumstellar material is producing the observed large infrared excess. We have discovered a high-velocity CO bipolar outflow in the east-west direction, which is clearly associated with IRS1, and the outflow parameters are similar to those of intermediate-mass young stellar objects. Associated with the blue large scale CO outflow lobe, detected with single-dish observations, we only found two elongated low-velocity structures on either side of IRS3. The large-scale outflow lobe is almost completely resolved out by the SMA. Our detected low-velocity CO structures are coincident with elongated H2 emission features. The strongest millimeter continuum condensations in the region are found on either side of IRS3, where the infrared emission is extremely weak, and the CO and H2 elongated structures follow the border of the millimeter continuum emission that is facing IRS3. All these results suggest that the dust is associated with the walls of an expanding cavity driven by IRS3, estimated to be a B2 star. Within and beyond the expanding cavity, the millimeter continuum sources can be sites of future low-mass star formation.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    A Census of Large-Scale (\ge 10 pc), Velocity-Coherent, Dense Filaments in the Northern Galactic Plane: Automated Identification Using Minimum Spanning Tree

    Full text link
    Large-scale gaseous filaments with length up to the order of 100 pc are on the upper end of the filamentary hierarchy of the Galactic interstellar medium. Their association with respect to the Galactic structure and their role in Galactic star formation are of great interest from both observational and theoretical point of view. Previous "by-eye" searches, combined together, have started to uncover the Galactic distribution of large filaments, yet inherent bias and small sample size limit conclusive statistical results to be drawn. Here, we present (1) a new, automated method to identify large-scale velocity-coherent dense filaments, and (2) the first statistics and the Galactic distribution of these filaments. We use a customized minimum spanning tree algorithm to identify filaments by connecting voxels in the position-position-velocity space, using the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey spectroscopic catalog. In the range of 7.5l1947.^{\circ}5 \le l \le 194^{\circ}, we have identified 54 large-scale filaments and derived mass (103105M\sim 10^3 - 10^5 \, M_\odot), length (10-276 pc), linear mass density (54-8625 Mpc1M_\odot \, \rm{pc}^{-1}), aspect ratio, linearity, velocity gradient, temperature, fragmentation, Galactic location and orientation angle. The filaments concentrate along major spiral arms. They are widely distributed across the Galactic disk, with 50% located within ±\pm20 pc from the Galactic mid-plane and 27% run in the center of spiral arms (aka "bones"). An order of 1% of the molecular ISM is confined in large filaments. Massive star formation is more favorable in large filaments compared to elsewhere. This is the first comprehensive catalog of large filaments useful for a quantitative comparison with spiral structures and numerical simulations.Comment: Accepted to ApJS. 20 pages (in aastex6 compact format), 6 figures, 1 table. See http://www.eso.org/~kwang/MSTpaper for (1) a preprint with full resolution Fig 6, (2) filaments catalog (Table 1) in ASCII format, and (3) a DS9 region file for the coordinates of the filament
    corecore