593 research outputs found

    ODN: Opening the Deep Network for Open-set Action Recognition

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    In recent years, the performance of action recognition has been significantly improved with the help of deep neural networks. Most of the existing action recognition works hold the \textit{closed-set} assumption that all action categories are known beforehand while deep networks can be well trained for these categories. However, action recognition in the real world is essentially an \textit{open-set} problem, namely, it is impossible to know all action categories beforehand and consequently infeasible to prepare sufficient training samples for those emerging categories. In this case, applying closed-set recognition methods will definitely lead to unseen-category errors. To address this challenge, we propose the Open Deep Network (ODN) for the open-set action recognition task. Technologically, ODN detects new categories by applying a multi-class triplet thresholding method, and then dynamically reconstructs the classification layer and "opens" the deep network by adding predictors for new categories continually. In order to transfer the learned knowledge to the new category, two novel methods, Emphasis Initialization and Allometry Training, are adopted to initialize and incrementally train the new predictor so that only few samples are needed to fine-tune the model. Extensive experiments show that ODN can effectively detect and recognize new categories with little human intervention, thus applicable to the open-set action recognition tasks in the real world. Moreover, ODN can even achieve comparable performance to some closed-set methods.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, ICME 201

    Systematic inference of functional phosphorylation events in yeast metabolism

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    Motivation: Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that affects proteins by changing their structure and conformation in a rapid and reversible way, and it is an important mechanism for metabolic regulation in cells. Phosphoproteomics enables high-throughput identification of phosphorylation events on metabolic enzymes, but identifying functional phosphorylation events still requires more detailed biochemical characterization. Therefore, development of computational methods for investigating unknown functions of a large number of phosphorylation events identified by phosphoproteomics has received increased attention. Results: We developed a mathematical framework that describes the relationship between phosphorylation level of a metabolic enzyme and the corresponding flux through the enzyme. Using this framework, it is possible to quantitatively estimate contribution of phosphorylation events to flux changes. We showed that phosphorylation regulation analysis, combined with a systematic workflow and correlation analysis, can be used for inference of functional phosphorylation events in steady and dynamic conditions, respectively. Using this analysis, we assigned functionality to phosphorylation events of 17 metabolic enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, among which 10 are novel. Phosphorylation regulation analysis cannot only be extended for inference of other functional post-translational modifications but also be a promising scaffold formulti-omics data integration in systems biology

    Intelligent human action recognition using an ensemble model of evolving deep networks with swarm-based optimization.

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    Automatic interpretation of human actions from realistic videos attracts increasing research attention owing to its growing demand in real-world deployments such as biometrics, intelligent robotics, and surveillance. In this research, we propose an ensemble model of evolving deep networks comprising Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BLSTM) networks for human action recognition. A swarm intelligence (SI)-based algorithm is also proposed for identifying the optimal hyper-parameters of the deep networks. The SI algorithm plays a crucial role for determining the BLSTM network and learning configurations such as the learning and dropout rates and the number of hidden neurons, in order to establish effective deep features that accurately represent the temporal dynamics of human actions. The proposed SI algorithm incorporates hybrid crossover operators implemented by sine, cosine, and tanh functions for multiple elite offspring signal generation, as well as geometric search coefficients extracted from a three-dimensional super-ellipse surface. Moreover, it employs a versatile search process led by the yielded promising offspring solutions to overcome stagnation. Diverse CNN–BLSTM networks with distinctive hyper-parameter settings are devised. An ensemble model is subsequently constructed by aggregating a set of three optimized CNN–BLSTM​ networks based on the average prediction probabilities. Evaluated using several publicly available human action data sets, our evolving ensemble deep networks illustrate statistically significant superiority over those with default and optimal settings identified by other search methods. The proposed SI algorithm also shows great superiority over several other methods for solving diverse high-dimensional unimodal and multimodal optimization functions with artificial landscapes
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