2,966 research outputs found

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Tinnitus

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    Tinnitus is a disturbing noise that is heard without any hearing stimulus, affects the quality of life of the individual, and leads to psychosocial problems. Its prevalence characteristically increases with aging. It is seen in 33% of the general population. Pathophysiology of tinnitus known to accompany nearly all disorders in auditory system has not been fully understood; therefore, there are some difficulties in evaluation and treatment thereof. Despite the restrictive factors of tinnitus treatment, progress in auditory neuroscience provides a positive view of tinnitus treatment. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method based on the stimulation of neuronal tissue without depending on the transfer of electrical current by means of electrodes or the skin. TMS is used in the treatment of various diseases with developing neuroscience. In the recent years, the number of studies on TMS application with repetitive low frequency for the treatment of tinnitus has increased, and most of these studies have given successful results. Repetitive use of TMS in tinnitus is very novel; however, it is commonly used in psychiatric disorders, especially in the treatment of drug-resistant depression. The chapter shows that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) is useful in the treatment of chronic tinnitus

    Meniere’s Disease: Nonsurgical Treatment

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    Meniere’s disease or syndrome is one of the most common inner ear diseases. Meniere’s disease is characterized by episodic vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss that fluctuates during episodes, tinnitus, and ear fullness. Ideal treatment should stop vertigo attacks, restore hearing, get rid of tinnitus and ear fullness. Treatment options are decided upon the remaining hearing, severity, and intensity of vertigo attacks. Meniere’s disease is progressive on hearing levels of the patient; some of them develop profound hearing loss that also could affect the other ear. In order to plan a treatment scheme for patient, these conditions should be assessed. It has a destructive and progressive nature, so the first step of treatment should contain more conservative treatment options. If symptom control could not be obtained, destructive treatment options should be considered

    Jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions at LHC with CMS detector

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    Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, 2013.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages 143-148).The collision of highly relativistic nuclei can produce a volume of high energy density which can be used to learn about the behavior of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at extreme conditions, such as those of the universe at times before and during the formation of hadrons out of quarks and gluons. This thesis presents experimental studies of jet-quenching phenomena in PbPb collisions at [square root of]sNN = 2.76 TeV, with a focus on the study of the energy-loss, namely the analysis of correlations of jet pairs as measured by the CMS detector at LHC. The implications of the results are discussed by comparison of simple models with data. It is observed that the geometrical configuration of the dijets and the nuclear collision region plays an important role in the correlations between the jets, and the set of CMS results reviewed can illustrate the dependence of the amount of lost energy on the length of the traversed medium.by Yetkin Yilmaz.Ph.D

    Meniere’s Disease: Surgical Treatment

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    When Meniere’s disease’s vertigo attacks are too frequent and medical treatment options fail, surgical treatment options should be considered. Meniere’s disease is progressive, and there is not a known cure, and all treatment options are symptomatic. Also the possibility of bilateral involvement is another well-known characteristic of this condition as well as its effect on hearing. Some of the patients have progressive hearing loss with vertigo attacks. In order to decide a surgical procedure for these patients, clinicians must be aware of the natural course of Meniere’s disease. In order to their effects on vestibular system, there are two types of surgical procedures. Nondestructive surgeries aim to alter the course of disease, and destructive surgeries aim to control symptoms while eliminating all vestibular functions of the effected ear

    Jet Fragmentation Functions Measured in PbPb Collisions with CMS

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    The energy loss of partons in high-energy nuclear collisions is one of the most interesting observables to probe the nature of the produced medium. Analyzing data from PbPb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV, recorded with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector, parton energy loss is observed as a significant imbalance of dijet transverse momentum. To gain further understanding of the parton energy loss mechanism and how it manifests itself in the distribution of final state particles, fragmentation functions are studied for the leading and subleading jet in bins of dijet imbalance.Comment: 1 cover + 4 pages, 3 figures (with 5 source figures). Quark Matter 2011 conference report. To be published in special issue of J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phy

    Track reconstruction at LHC as a collaborative data challenge use case with RAMP

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    Charged particle track reconstruction is a major component of data-processing in high-energy physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and is foreseen to become more and more challenging with higher collision rates. A simplified two-dimensional version of the track reconstruction problem is set up on a collaborative platform, RAMP, in order for the developers to prototype and test new ideas. A small-scale competition was held during the Connecting The Dots / Intelligent Trackers 2017 (CTDWIT 2017) workshop. Despite the short time scale, a number of different approaches have been developed and compared along a single score metric, which was kept generic enough to accommodate a summarized performance in terms of both efficiency and fake rates

    Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

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    We present a measurement of the ratio of positive to negative muon fluxes from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, using data collected by the CMS detector both at ground level and in the underground experimental cavern at the CERN LHC. Muons were detected in the momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c . The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766¬Ī0.0032(stat.)¬Ī0.0032(syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Observation of long-range, near-side angular correlations in proton-proton collisions at the LHC

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    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles emitted in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV are presented, using data collected with the CMS detector over a broad range of pseudorapidity (ő∑) and azimuthal angle (Ōē). Short-range correlations in őĒő∑, which are studied in minimum bias events, are characterized using a simple ‚Äúindependent cluster‚ÄĚ parametrization in order to quantify their strength (cluster size) and their extent in ő∑ (cluster decay width). Long-range azimuthal correlations are studied differentially as a function of charged particle multiplicity and particle transverse momentum using a 980 nb[superscript ‚ąí1] data set at 7 TeV. In high multiplicity events, a pronounced structure emerges in the two-dimensional correlation function for particle pairs with intermediate p [subscript T] of 1‚Äď3 GeV/c, 2.0 < |őĒő∑| < 4.8 and őĒŌē ‚Čą 0. This is the first observation of such a long-range, near-side feature in two-particle correlation functions in pp or p[‚ąíover]p collisions
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