284,817 research outputs found

    Interacting Individuals Leading to Zipf's Law

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    We present a general approach to explain the Zipf's law of city distribution. If the simplest interaction (pairwise) is assumed, individuals tend to form cities in agreement with the well-known statisticsComment: 4 pages 2 figure

    Evolution of magnetic component in Yang-Mills condensate dark energy models

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    The evolution of the electric and magnetic components in an effective Yang-Mills condensate dark energy model is investigated. If the electric field is dominant, the magnetic component disappears with the expansion of the Universe. The total YM condensate tracks the radiation in the earlier Universe, and later it becomes wy1w_y\sim-1 thus is similar to the cosmological constant. So the cosmic coincidence problem can be avoided in this model. However, if the magnetic field is dominant, wy>1/3w_y>1/3 holds for all time, suggesting that it cannot be a candidate for the dark energy in this case.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures, minor typos correcte

    Tuning electronic structure of graphene via tailoring structure: theoretical study

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    Electronic structures of graphene sheet with different defective patterns are investigated, based on the first principles calculations. We find that defective patterns can tune the electronic structures of the graphene significantly. Triangle patterns give rise to strongly localized states near the Fermi level, and hexagonal patterns open up band gaps in the systems. In addition, rectangular patterns, which feature networks of graphene nanoribbons with either zigzag or armchair edges, exhibit semiconducting behaviors, where the band gap has an evident dependence on the width of the nanoribbons. For the networks of the graphene nanoribbons, some special channels for electronic transport are predicted.Comment: 5 figures, 6 page

    Models of Financial Markets with Extensive Participation Incentives

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    We consider models of financial markets in which all parties involved find incentives to participate. Strategies are evaluated directly by their virtual wealths. By tuning the price sensitivity and market impact, a phase diagram with several attractor behaviors resembling those of real markets emerge, reflecting the roles played by the arbitrageurs and trendsetters, and including a phase with irregular price trends and positive sums. The positive-sumness of the players' wealths provides participation incentives for them. Evolution and the bid-ask spread provide mechanisms for the gain in wealth of both the players and market-makers. New players survive in the market if the evolutionary rate is sufficiently slow. We test the applicability of the model on real Hang Seng Index data over 20 years. Comparisons with other models show that our model has a superior average performance when applied to real financial data.Comment: 17 pages, 16 figure