53 research outputs found

    Diet overlap between the endemic fish Anablariflus grahami(Cyprinidae) and the exotic noodlefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae) in lake Fuxian, China

    Get PDF
    We studied diet composition and overlap of the exotic noodlefish (Neosalanx taihuensis) and the endemic fish Anaborilius grahami in a deep, oligotrophic lake in the Yunnan Plateau. A. grahami dominated the fish community in Lake Fuxian before the invasion of N. taihuensis in 1982, but it is now in the process of extinction, corresponding with an explosive increase in N. taihuensis population. Schoener's index (alpha=0.773) indicate that N. taihuensis and A. grahami have significant diet overlap, with both fish feeding mainly on zooplankton. An increased proportion of littoral prey, such as Procladius spp., Coleoptera, and epiphytes, in the diet of A. grahami indicated that this endemic fish shifted its main habitat from the off-shore zone in the late 1980s to the littoral zone at the present. A difference in reproduction between the two fishes, along with the overfishing, may have exacerbated the occupation of A. grahami's pelagic niche by N. taihuensis. The endemic species has shown large competitive disadvantage for food and space in the presence of N. taihuensis.We studied diet composition and overlap of the exotic noodlefish (Neosalanx taihuensis) and the endemic fish Anaborilius grahami in a deep, oligotrophic lake in the Yunnan Plateau. A. grahami dominated the fish community in Lake Fuxian before the invasion of N. taihuensis in 1982, but it is now in the process of extinction, corresponding with an explosive increase in N. taihuensis population. Schoener's index (alpha=0.773) indicate that N. taihuensis and A. grahami have significant diet overlap, with both fish feeding mainly on zooplankton. An increased proportion of littoral prey, such as Procladius spp., Coleoptera, and epiphytes, in the diet of A. grahami indicated that this endemic fish shifted its main habitat from the off-shore zone in the late 1980s to the littoral zone at the present. A difference in reproduction between the two fishes, along with the overfishing, may have exacerbated the occupation of A. grahami's pelagic niche by N. taihuensis. The endemic species has shown large competitive disadvantage for food and space in the presence of N. taihuensis

    Antioxidant enzyme activities of Microcystis aeruginosa in response to nonylphenols and degradation of nonylphenols by M-aeruginosa

    Get PDF
    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chemical nonylphenols (NPs) on the antioxidant system of Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The degradation and sorption of NPs by M. aeruginosa were also evaluated. High concentrations of NPs (1 and 2 mg/l) were found to cause increases in superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in glutathione (GSH) levels. These results suggest that toxic stress manifested by elevated SOD and GST levels and GSH contents may be responsible for the toxicity of NPs to M. aeruginosa and that the algal cells could improve their antioxidant and detoxification ability through the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic prevention substances. The observed elevations in GSH levels and GST activities were relatively higher than those in SOD activities, indicating that GSH and GST contributed more in eliminating toxic effects than SOD. Low concentrations of NPs (0.05-0.2 mg/l) enhanced cell growth and decreased GST activity in algal cells of M. aeruginosa, suggesting that NPs may have acted as a protecting factor, such as an antioxidant. The larger portion of the NPs (> 60%) disappeared after 12 days of incubation, indicating the strong ability of M. aeruginosa to degrade the moderate persistent NP compounds. The sorption ratio of M. aeruginosa after a 12-day exposure to low nominal concentrations of NPs (0.02-0.5 mg/l) was relatively high (> 30%). The fact that M. aeruginosa effectively resisted the toxic effects of NPs and strongly degraded these pollutants indicate that M. aeruginosa cells have a strong ability to adapt to variations in environmental conditions and that low and moderate concentrations of organic compounds may favor its survival. Further studies are needed to provide detailed information on the fate of persistent organic pollutants and the survival of algae and to determine the possible role of organic pollutants in the occurrence of water blooms in eutrophic lakes.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chemical nonylphenols (NPs) on the antioxidant system of Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The degradation and sorption of NPs by M. aeruginosa were also evaluated. High concentrations of NPs (1 and 2 mg/l) were found to cause increases in superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in glutathione (GSH) levels. These results suggest that toxic stress manifested by elevated SOD and GST levels and GSH contents may be responsible for the toxicity of NPs to M. aeruginosa and that the algal cells could improve their antioxidant and detoxification ability through the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic prevention substances. The observed elevations in GSH levels and GST activities were relatively higher than those in SOD activities, indicating that GSH and GST contributed more in eliminating toxic effects than SOD. Low concentrations of NPs (0.05-0.2 mg/l) enhanced cell growth and decreased GST activity in algal cells of M. aeruginosa, suggesting that NPs may have acted as a protecting factor, such as an antioxidant. The larger portion of the NPs (> 60%) disappeared after 12 days of incubation, indicating the strong ability of M. aeruginosa to degrade the moderate persistent NP compounds. The sorption ratio of M. aeruginosa after a 12-day exposure to low nominal concentrations of NPs (0.02-0.5 mg/l) was relatively high (> 30%). The fact that M. aeruginosa effectively resisted the toxic effects of NPs and strongly degraded these pollutants indicate that M. aeruginosa cells have a strong ability to adapt to variations in environmental conditions and that low and moderate concentrations of organic compounds may favor its survival. Further studies are needed to provide detailed information on the fate of persistent organic pollutants and the survival of algae and to determine the possible role of organic pollutants in the occurrence of water blooms in eutrophic lakes

    Mussel isotope signature as indicator of nutrient pollution in a freshwater eutrophic lake: species, spatial, and seasonal variability

    Get PDF
    Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of five mussel species from littoral and pelagic areas were investigated with different trophic states in the eutrophic Lake Taihu, the third largest lake in China. Interpopulation variability for these mussels was relatively small in foot tissues because of the slow turnover time. Seasonal and spatial variations among the delta N-15 values of mussels might be due in part to the natural variation in delta N-15 values of potential food sources and the variation in the amount of human pollutions discharged into various locations of the lake. Although the increase of mussel delta N-15 values was accompanied by the increase of nutrient concentrations in most situations in this study, statistically significant correlations were only 22% of the total correlations in this survey, which might be attributed to the different time-scale variations in nutrient concentrations and isotope signatures and the unknown details of the trophic pathways and metabolism for incorporation of these nutrients

    Metals in surface sediments of large shallow eutrophic lake chaohu, china

    Get PDF
    Metal contents of surface sediments were analyzed temporally and spatially in Lake Chaohu, China. No obvious temporal variations were observed, which probably due to physio- and bio- mixing, e.g. wind and microbes, in this lake. Enrichment factor of some metals were generally greater than 1.0, suggesting significant anthropogenic impact on metal levels. Significantly positive correlations between concentrations of nutrient and metals indicated that the nutrients transported to this lake contributed, to some extent, to the enrichment of metals. The correlation between trace metals concentrations indicated the co-contamination of anthropogenically derived metal enrichment in surface sediment of Lake Chaohu.Metal contents of surface sediments were analyzed temporally and spatially in Lake Chaohu, China. No obvious temporal variations were observed, which probably due to physio- and bio- mixing, e.g. wind and microbes, in this lake. Enrichment factor of some metals were generally greater than 1.0, suggesting significant anthropogenic impact on metal levels. Significantly positive correlations between concentrations of nutrient and metals indicated that the nutrients transported to this lake contributed, to some extent, to the enrichment of metals. The correlation between trace metals concentrations indicated the co-contamination of anthropogenically derived metal enrichment in surface sediment of Lake Chaohu

    Tissue distributions and seasonal dynamics of the hepatotoxic microcystins-LR and -RR in two freshwater shrimps, Palaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis, from a large shallow, eutrophic lake of the subtropical China

    Get PDF
    So far no information is available on microcystin (MC) contents in shrimps, prawns or crayfish from natural freshwaters. Tissue distributions and seasonal dynamics of the hepatotoxic MC-LR and -RR in two freshwater shrimps, Palaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis were studied monthly (during June-November, 2003) in a Chinese lake containing toxic cyanobacterial blooms. The shrimps P. modestus and M. nipponensis accumulated high MCs not only in the hepatopancreas (mean 4.29 and 0.53 mu g g(-1) DW, respectively) but also in the gonad (mean 1.17 and 0.48 mu g g-1 DW, respectively), and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii accumulated as much as 0.93 mu g g(-1) DW in the gonad. This indicates that gonads of these invertebrates are the second important target organ of MCs. P. modestus apparently accumulated more MCs in their organs than M. nipponensis, which might be a reflection of their difference in trophic niche. Eggs of the shrimps accumulated 8.4% (M. nipponensis, 0.27 mu g g(-1) DW) and 29.0% (P. modestus, 2.34 mu g g(-1) DW) of total toxin burden, indicating that MCs had been transferred into offspring from their adults. Among the shrimp muscle samples analyzed, 31% were above the provisional WHO TDI level, suggesting the risk of consuming shrimps in Lake Chaohu. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.So far no information is available on microcystin (MC) contents in shrimps, prawns or crayfish from natural freshwaters. Tissue distributions and seasonal dynamics of the hepatotoxic MC-LR and -RR in two freshwater shrimps, Palaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis were studied monthly (during June-November, 2003) in a Chinese lake containing toxic cyanobacterial blooms. The shrimps P. modestus and M. nipponensis accumulated high MCs not only in the hepatopancreas (mean 4.29 and 0.53 mu g g(-1) DW, respectively) but also in the gonad (mean 1.17 and 0.48 mu g g-1 DW, respectively), and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii accumulated as much as 0.93 mu g g(-1) DW in the gonad. This indicates that gonads of these invertebrates are the second important target organ of MCs. P. modestus apparently accumulated more MCs in their organs than M. nipponensis, which might be a reflection of their difference in trophic niche. Eggs of the shrimps accumulated 8.4% (M. nipponensis, 0.27 mu g g(-1) DW) and 29.0% (P. modestus, 2.34 mu g g(-1) DW) of total toxin burden, indicating that MCs had been transferred into offspring from their adults. Among the shrimp muscle samples analyzed, 31% were above the provisional WHO TDI level, suggesting the risk of consuming shrimps in Lake Chaohu. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Crustacean zooplankton distribution patterns and their biomass as related to trophic indicators of 29 shallow subtropical lakes

    Get PDF
    A comparative limnological study was carried out to present a snapshot of crustacean zooplankton communities and their relations to environmental factors to test whether there is a consistent relationship between crustacean biomass and trophic indicators among lake groups with similar trophic conditions. The study lakes showed a wide range of trophic status, with total phosphorus (TP) ranging from 0.008 to 1.448mgL(-1), and chlorophyll a from 0.7 to 146.1 mu g L-1, respectively. About 38 species of Crustacea were found, of which Cladocera were represented by 25 taxa (20 genera), and Copepoda by 13 taxa (I I genera). The most common and dominant species were Bosmina coregoni, Moina micrura, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Cyclops vicinus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis, Mesocyclops notius and Sinocalanus dorrii. Daphnia was rare in abundance. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that except for four species (D. hyalina, S. dorrii, C. vicinus and M. micrura), almost all the dominant species had the same preference for environmental factors. Temperature, predatory cyclopoids and planktivorous fishes seem to be the key factors determining species distribution. TP was a relatively better trophic indicator than chlorophyll a to predict crustacean biomass. Within the three groups of lakes, however, there was no consistent relationship between crustacean biomass and trophic indicators. The possible reason might be that top-down and bottom-up control on crustaceans vary with lake trophic state. The lack of significant negative correlation between crustacean biomass and chlorophyll a suggests that there was little control of phytoplankton biomass by macrozooplankton in these shallow subtropical lakes. (c) 2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.A comparative limnological study was carried out to present a snapshot of crustacean zooplankton communities and their relations to environmental factors to test whether there is a consistent relationship between crustacean biomass and trophic indicators among lake groups with similar trophic conditions. The study lakes showed a wide range of trophic status, with total phosphorus (TP) ranging from 0.008 to 1.448mgL(-1), and chlorophyll a from 0.7 to 146.1 mu g L-1, respectively. About 38 species of Crustacea were found, of which Cladocera were represented by 25 taxa (20 genera), and Copepoda by 13 taxa (I I genera). The most common and dominant species were Bosmina coregoni, Moina micrura, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Cyclops vicinus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis, Mesocyclops notius and Sinocalanus dorrii. Daphnia was rare in abundance. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that except for four species (D. hyalina, S. dorrii, C. vicinus and M. micrura), almost all the dominant species had the same preference for environmental factors. Temperature, predatory cyclopoids and planktivorous fishes seem to be the key factors determining species distribution. TP was a relatively better trophic indicator than chlorophyll a to predict crustacean biomass. Within the three groups of lakes, however, there was no consistent relationship between crustacean biomass and trophic indicators. The possible reason might be that top-down and bottom-up control on crustaceans vary with lake trophic state. The lack of significant negative correlation between crustacean biomass and chlorophyll a suggests that there was little control of phytoplankton biomass by macrozooplankton in these shallow subtropical lakes. (c) 2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved

    In situ studies on physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms in a large Chinese lake

    Get PDF
    Physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms were studied in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. We sampled four fishes: the phytoplanktivorous Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis, the omnivorous Carassius auratus, and the carnivorous Culter ilishaeformis. Alterations of the antioxidant (GSH) and the major antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) in livers were monitored monthly, and the ultrastructures of livers were compared between the bloom and post-bloom periods. During the cyanobacterial blooms, the phytoplanktivorous fishes displayed only slight ultrastructural changes in liver, while the carnivorous fish presented the most serious injury as swollen endomembrane system and morphologically altered nuclei in hepatocytes. Biochemically, the phytoplanktivorous fishes possessed higher basal GSH concentrations and better correlations between the major antioxidant enzymes in liver, which might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs. This article provided physiological and toxicological evidences for the possible succession of fish communities following occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms and also for the applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms were studied in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. We sampled four fishes: the phytoplanktivorous Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis, the omnivorous Carassius auratus, and the carnivorous Culter ilishaeformis. Alterations of the antioxidant (GSH) and the major antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) in livers were monitored monthly, and the ultrastructures of livers were compared between the bloom and post-bloom periods. During the cyanobacterial blooms, the phytoplanktivorous fishes displayed only slight ultrastructural changes in liver, while the carnivorous fish presented the most serious injury as swollen endomembrane system and morphologically altered nuclei in hepatocytes. Biochemically, the phytoplanktivorous fishes possessed higher basal GSH concentrations and better correlations between the major antioxidant enzymes in liver, which might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs. This article provided physiological and toxicological evidences for the possible succession of fish communities following occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms and also for the applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Stable isotope variations in particulate organic matter and a planktivorous fish in the Yangtze River

    Get PDF
    Temporal and spatial changes in delta(13) C and delta 15 N of particulate organic matter (POM) and Hemiculter leucisculus were studied in the Yangtze River of China. Isotopic signatures of POM showed seasonal variations, which was assumed to be associated with allochthonous organic input and autochthonous phytoplankton growth. delta C-13 of H. leucisculus was 1.1 % higher than that of POM, which suggested that the food source of H. leucisculus was mostly from the POM. A mass balance model indicated the trophic position of H. leucisculus in the food web of Yangtze River was estimated to be 2.0 - 2.1, indicating that this fish mainly feeds on planktonic organic matter, which agreed with previous gut content analysis.Temporal and spatial changes in delta(13) C and delta 15 N of particulate organic matter (POM) and Hemiculter leucisculus were studied in the Yangtze River of China. Isotopic signatures of POM showed seasonal variations, which was assumed to be associated with allochthonous organic input and autochthonous phytoplankton growth. delta C-13 of H. leucisculus was 1.1 % higher than that of POM, which suggested that the food source of H. leucisculus was mostly from the POM. A mass balance model indicated the trophic position of H. leucisculus in the food web of Yangtze River was estimated to be 2.0 - 2.1, indicating that this fish mainly feeds on planktonic organic matter, which agreed with previous gut content analysis

    Icefish (Salangidae) as an indicator of anthropogenic pollution in freshwater systems using nitrogen isotope analysis

    Get PDF
    We investigated differences in delta N-15 of seston and icefishes from seven freshwater ecosystems with different trophic states in China. An increase of seston delta N-15 values was accompanied by an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Significantly positive correlations were observed between delta N-15 of icefishes and delta N-15 of seston, total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. This study demonstrated that icefishes could be preferred indicators of anthropogenic contamination in test systems because they integrated waste inputs over long time periods and reflected the movement of waste through the pelagic food chain.We investigated differences in delta N-15 of seston and icefishes from seven freshwater ecosystems with different trophic states in China. An increase of seston delta N-15 values was accompanied by an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Significantly positive correlations were observed between delta N-15 of icefishes and delta N-15 of seston, total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. This study demonstrated that icefishes could be preferred indicators of anthropogenic contamination in test systems because they integrated waste inputs over long time periods and reflected the movement of waste through the pelagic food chain
    • ÔÇŽ
    corecore