11,825 research outputs found

    Spectral methods for orthogonal rational functions

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    An operator theoretic approach to orthogonal rational functions on the unit circle with poles in its exterior is presented in this paper. This approach is based on the identification of a suitable matrix representation of the multiplication operator associated with the corresponding orthogonality measure. Two different alternatives are discussed, depending whether we use for the matrix representation the standard basis of orthogonal rational functions, or a new one with poles alternatively located in the exterior and the interior of the unit circle. The corresponding representations are linear fractional transformations with matrix coefficients acting respectively on Hessenberg and five-diagonal unitary matrices. In consequence, the orthogonality measure can be recovered from the spectral measure of an infinite unitary matrix depending uniquely on the poles and the parameters of the recurrence relation for the orthogonal rational functions. Besides, the zeros of the orthogonal and para-orthogonal rational functions are identified as the eigenvalues of matrix linear fractional transformations of finite Hessenberg and five-diagonal matrices. As an application of this operator approach, we obtain new relations between the support of the orthogonality measure and the location of the poles and parameters of the recurrence relation, generalizing to the rational case known results for orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle. Finally, we extend these results to orthogonal polynomials on the real line with poles in the lower half plane.Comment: 62 page

    Equilibrium fluctuation theorems compatible with anomalous response

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    Previously, we have derived a generalization of the canonical fluctuation relation between heat capacity and energy fluctuations C=β2<δU2>C=\beta^{2}<\delta U^{2}>, which is able to describe the existence of macrostates with negative heat capacities C<0C<0. In this work, we extend our previous results for an equilibrium situation with several control parameters to account for the existence of states with anomalous values in other response functions. Our analysis leads to the derivation of three different equilibrium fluctuation theorems: the \textit{fundamental and the complementary fluctuation theorems}, which represent the generalization of two fluctuation identities already obtained in previous works, and the \textit{associated fluctuation theorem}, a result that has no counterpart in the framework of Boltzmann-Gibbs distributions. These results are applied to study the anomalous susceptibility of a ferromagnetic system, in particular, the case of 2D Ising model.Comment: Extended version of the paper published in JSTA