1,365 research outputs found

    Negotiate or Litigate? Effects of WTO Judicial Delegation on U.S. Trade Politics

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    Goldstein and Steinberg argue that the World Trade Organization Appellate Body has been able to use its authority to engage in judicial lawmaking to reduce trade barriers in ways that would not otherwise have been possible through negotiation. This lawmaking authority was not the result of a purposeful delegation; rather, it was an unintended byproduct of the creation of an underspecified set of rules and procedures. There is nevertheless a high rate of compliance with Appellate Body decisions because decentralized enforcement can induce domestic importers to lobby for trade liberalization. In the US, this judicial lawmaking may also allow the President to achieve trade policies that are more liberal than those desired by Congress, if compliance can be achieved by a regulatory change or by sole Executive action

    Joint Crowdout: An Empirical Study of the Impact of Federal Grants on State Government Expenditures and Charitable Donations

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    We estimate the effect of exogenous federal expenditure cutbacks on state social service expenditures and on charitable donations. In the process, we also estimate tax and income effects and explore the impact of community environment and "need" variables. Data consist of a unique three-year panel of aggregate itemized giving by state and income class and government expenditures by state. Our results confirm the 'flypaper effect' of federal grants on state spending and show statistically significant but partial crowdout of charitable donations. The flypaper effects appears to dominate the crowdout of donations, so that federal grants are especially productive of overall social service expenditures. Finally, we find that the state's poverty rate is a particularly strong and positive determinant of charitable giving.

    Making difficult auctions easy

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    To maximise revenue from an auction, an important question is how to design it. A combinatorial auction is one where bids are allowed not only on individual items, but on combinations of items, called packages, as well. The auctioneer aims to accept the bids that together maximise revenue. This is called the winner determination problem — a mathematical problem. As the number of items in an auction increases, the number of steps required to design the optimal combination increases exponentially, and so does the time required to solve the puzzle. Together with his colleague Frank Kelly, Richard Steinberg developed a combinatorial auction procedure called PAUSE (Progressive Adaptive User Selection Environment) in which the auctioneer never faces the winner determination problem

    The Clash of Values in Civil Society

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    Economic Perspective on Regulation of Charitable Solicitation

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    Earned, owned, or transferred: are donations sensitive to the composition of income and wealth?

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    Using data from COPPS/PSID, we investigate the effects of different forms and sources of income (labor, asset, welfare, and other transfers) and wealth (home equity and other wealth) on household charitable donations (total, religious, secular, combined causes, and the needy). We find that it is important to disaggregate income and wealth and to distinguish the effect of an increase in the level of each component from the effect of the component’s presence. We reject the fungibility hypothesis for income and, except for religious giving and gifts to the needy, for wealth. Past receipt of inheritances affects current giving.donations, income decomposition, wealth decomposition, consumption

    Maximizing social welfare in congestion games via redistribution

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    It is well-known that efficient use of congestible resources can be achieved via marginal pricing; however, payments collected from the agents generate a budget surplus, which reduces social welfare. We show that an asymptotically first-best solution in the number of agents can be achieved by the appropriate redistribution of the budget surplus back to the agents

    Charitable Giving in Nonprofit Service Associations: Identities, Incentives, and Gender Differences

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    Nonprofit service associations, such as the Lions Clubs, Rotaries, and Kiwanis, provide collective goods. Membership in a service association involves two essential elements: members’ shared interest in the club’s charitable service and private benefits stemming from social interactions with other members, such as networking, fellowship, and fun. We report results from a laboratory experiment designed to test the effect of membership and priming on charitable giving. The two experimental conditions activate chains of associative memory linked to the service or socializing aspects of membership. We find that female subjects give significantly smaller donations after receiving the socializing stimulus. Male subjects are less sensitive to our experimental conditions, giving slightly more in the socializing condition, but the differences are not statistically significant. We discuss three mechanisms that may explain our results: social identity theory, reputation and image motivations, and quality inference
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