73 research outputs found

    Massive phonon modes from a BEC-based analog model

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    Two-component BECs subject to laser-induced coupling exhibit a complicated spectrum of excitations, which can be viewed as two interacting phonon modes. We study the conditions required to make these two phonon modes decouple. Once decoupled, the phonons not only can be arranged travel at different speeds, but one of the modes can be given a mass -- it exhibits the dispersion relation of a massive relativistic particle: omega = sqrt{omega_0^2 + c^2 k^2}. This is a new and unexpected excitation mode for the coupled BEC system. Apart from its intrinsic interest to the BEC community, this observation is also of interest for the ``analogue gravity'' programme, as it opens the possibility for using BECs to simulate massive relativistic particles in an effective ``acoustic geometry''.Comment: 4 pages; uses revtex

    An acoustic probe for quantum vorticity in Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We investigate the deformation of wavefronts of sound waves in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. In irrational fluid flows Berry et al. identified this kind of deformation as the hydrodynamic analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We study this effect in Bose-Einstein condensates and obtain the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift at all wavelengths. We show that this deformation of wave fronts is seen in both phase and density fluctuations. For wavelengths larger than the healing length, the phase fluctuations experience a phase shift of the order of 2π2\pi times the winding number. We also consider lattices of vortices. If the angular momentum of the vortices are aligned, the total phase shift is 2π2\pi times the number of vortices in the condensate. Because of this behaviour the hydrodynamic Aharonov-Bohm can be utilized as a probe for quantum vorticity, whose experimental realization could offers an alternative route to investigate quantum turbulence in the laboratory.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Massive Klein--Gordon equation from a BEC-based analogue spacetime

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    We extend the "analogue spacetime" programme by investigating a condensed-matter system that is in principle capable of simulating the massive Klein--Gordon equation in curved spacetime. Since many elementary particles have mass, this is an essential step in building realistic analogue models, and a first step towards simulating quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components. This system exhibits a complicated spectrum of normal mode excitations, which can be viewed as two interacting phonon modes that exhibit the phenomenon of "refringence". We study the conditions required to make these two phonon modes decouple. Once decoupled, the two distinct phonons generically couple to distinct effective spacetimes, representing a bi-metric model, with one of the modes acquiring a mass. In the eikonal limit the massive mode exhibits the dispersion relation of a massive relativistic particle: omega = sqrt[omega_0^2 + c^2 k^2], plus curved-space modifications. Furthermore, it is possible to tune the system so that both modes can be arranged to travel at the same speed, in which case the two phonon excitations couple to the same effective metric. From the analogue spacetime perspective this situation corresponds to the Einstein equivalence principle being satisfied.Comment: V1: 10 pages; uses revtex4; V2: two references and brief comments adde

    The fluid/gravity correspondence: Lectures notes from the 2008 Summer School on Particles, Fields, and Strings

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    This is a paper compiled by students of the 2008 Summer School on Particles, Fields, and Strings held at the University of British Columbia on lectures given by Veronika Hubeny as understood and interpreted by the authors. We start with an introduction to the AdS/CFT duality. More specifically, we discuss the correspondence between relativistic, conformal hydrodynamics and Einstein's theory of gravity. Within our framework the Einstein equations are an effective description for the string theory in the bulk of AdS_5 spacetime and the hydrodynamic fluid equations represent the conformal field theory near thermal equilibrium on the boundary. In particular we present a new technique for calculating properties in fluid dynamics using the stress-energy tensor induced on the boundary, by the gravitational field in the bulk, and comparing it with the form of the stress-energy tensor from hydrodynamics. A detailed treatment can be found in [JHEP 02 (2008) 045] and [arXiv:0803.2526].Comment: This is a paper compiled by students of the 2008 Summer School on Particles, Fields, and Strings held at the University of British Columbia on lectures given by Veronika Hubeny as understood and interpreted by the authors; 21 pages, 5 figure

    Solution generating theorems: perfect fluid spheres and the TOV equation

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    We report several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. In addition, we report new ``solution generating'' theorems for the TOV, whereby any given solution can be ``deformed'' to a new solution.Comment: 3 pages, 0 figures, to appear in the proceedings of the Eleventh Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (MG11), 23 - 29 July, 2006, Berlin, German

    Phenomenologically viable Lorentz-violating quantum gravity

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    Horava's "Lifschitz point gravity" has many desirable features, but in its original incarnation one is forced to accept a non-zero cosmological constant of the wrong sign to be compatible with observation. We develop an extension of Horava's model that abandons "detailed balance", and in 3+1 dimensions exhibit all five marginal (renormalizable) and four relevant (super-renormalizable) operators, as determined by power counting. We also consider the classical limit of this theory, evaluate the Hamiltonian and super-momentum constraints, and extract the classical equations of motion in a form similar to the ADM formulation of general relativity. This puts the model in a framework amenable to developing detailed precision tests.Comment: 4 pages; revtex4; V2: 2 references added; minor edits; no physics changes; V3: references added; minor edits; no physics changes. This version published in PR

    Lower-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz gravity

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    We consider Horava-Lifshitz gravity in both 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions. These lower-dimensional versions of Horava-Lifshitz gravity are simple enough to be explicitly tractable, but still complex enough to be interesting. We write the most general (non-projectable) action for each case and discuss the resulting dynamics. In the 1+1 case we utilize the equivalence with 2-dimensional Einstein-aether theory to argue that, even though non-trivial, the theory does not have any local degrees of freedom. In the 2+1 case we show that the only dynamical degree of freedom is a scalar, which qualitatively has the same dynamical behaviour as the scalar mode in (non-projectable) Horava-Lifshitz gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We discuss the suitability of these lower-dimensional theories as simpler playgrounds that could help us gain insight into the 3+1 theory. As special cases we also discuss the projectable limit of these theories. Finally, we present an algorithm that extends the equivalence with (higher order) Einstein-aether theory to full Horava-Lifshitz gravity (instead of just the low energy limit), and we use this extension to comment on the apparent naturalness of the covariant formulation of the latter.Comment: v2: 9 pages, discussion about projectable version as a limiting case added; v3: minor changes to match published versio

    Comment on: Detecting Vanishing Dimensions Via Primordial Gravitational Wave Astronomy

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    It has been recently claimed [arXiv:1102.3434] that quantum gravity models where the number of dimensions reduces at the ultraviolet exhibit a potentially observable cutoff in the primordial gravitational wave spectrum, and that this is a "generic" and "robust" test for such models, since "(2+1)-dimensional spacetimes have no gravitational degrees of freedom". We argue that such a claim is misleading.Comment: 1 page, comment to Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 101101 (2011) [arXiv:1102.3434

    Superradiant scattering of orbital angular momentum beams

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    We consider the wave-structure coupling between an orbital angular momentum beam and a rapidly rotating disk, and present a new configuration exhibiting the wave amplification effect known as rotational superradiance. While initially envisioned in terms of the scattering of an incident wave directed perpendicular to an object's rotation axis, we demonstrate in the context of acousto-mechanics that superradiant amplification can also occur with a vortex beam directed parallel to the rotation axis. We propose two different experimental routes: one must either work with rotations high enough that the tangential velocity at the outer edge of the disk exceeds the speed of sound, or use evanescent sound waves. We argue that the latter possibility is more promising, and provides the opportunity to probe a previously unexamined parameter regime in the acoustics of rotating porous media.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    On the phenomenon of emergent spacetimes: An instruction guide for experimental cosmology

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    We present a toy model where spacetime is emergent from a more fundamental microscopic system, and investigate the gray area interpolating between the collective and free-particle regimes. For a period of rapid exponential growth in the analogue universe, we argue that the intermediate regime is best described by a coloured potpourri of geometries -- a "rainbow geometry". This can be viewed as an alternative approach towards understanding quantum field theories in the presence of Lorentz-symmetry breaking at ultraviolet scales. Firstly, it is pointed out that cosmological particle production in our emergent FRW-type analogue universe, when compared to conventional semi-classical quantum gravity, is only temporarily robust against model-specific deviations from Lorentz invariance. Secondly, it is possible to carry out a straightforward quantitative analysis to estimate a suitable parameter regime for experimental (analogue) cosmology.Comment: 19 pages; Based on a talk at the conference: From Quantum to Emergent Gravity: Theory and Phenomenology, June 11-15 2007, Trieste, Ital