3,327 research outputs found

    Uncovering problematics in design education - learning and the design entity

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    This paper attempts to articulate some of the challenges for the curriculum, teaching methods and assessment in design education arising from research currently underway in London and Australia. Taking a phenomenographical approach, the research asks whether the experience of learning and teaching in design education, both for students and teachers, is consistent with conceptions shared, within the educational community, about the professional world of designers. We believe that there is substantial variation in the conceptions held by both students and teachers about what design is and how it should be learned. These variations in conceptions have a significant impact on how students learn and how teachers teach

    Teachers' and students' conceptions of the professional world

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    In the original 'Improving Student Learning' project led by Prof Graham Gibbs in 1991, one of the case studies focused on approaches to learning on a BA(Hons) Graphic Information Design course. The case study, led by Allan Davies, had the modest intention of trying to determine whether a particular curriculum innovation encouraged a deep approach to learning. Our only significant tool then was Bigg's SOLO taxonomy. Eleven years later and the innovators have moved on, the course has disappeared and the research context and methodologies have developed. During this period, research has suggested that both teachers and students describe their understanding of teaching and learning according to their perception of the teaching/ learning environment (Ramsden, 1992; Prosser & Trigwell, 1999). Studies have identified variation in the way that teachers experience teaching (Samuelowicz & Bain, 1992; Prosser, Trigwell & Taylor, 1994 for example) and variation in the way teachers experience student learning (Bruce & Gerber, 1995). More recently, Reid (1997) has widened the context of research by examining the relation between the experience of work and teaching/learning within the music discipline. In further research (Reid 1999), relations were found within the music discipline where teachers' and students' experience of one of three defined dimensions was strongly related to the ways in which they understood teaching and learning music. The musicians (and their students) described their experience of the professional world in three hierarchically related ways. This constitution has become known as the 'Music' Entity. In 1999, following a fortuitous meeting at the ISL conference in York, Davies and Reid conducted a joint enquiry, using a phenomenographic approach, to determine the 'Design' entity (Davies and Reid, 2001). This research focused on discerning the critical differences, or variation, in the way teachers and students experience and understand their subject and its relation to the professional design world. The outcomes of this research has, consequently, begun to impact on student learning through course design and, in particular, assessment. This paper will be a comparative study of the research already carried out by the authors in a number of disciplines in which the same focus and methodology has been used

    Rainwater Harvesting Domestic, Agricultural and School Applications

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    In 2005, Technological University Dublin (DIT) School of Civil and Building Services Engineering was commissioned by the National Rural Water Monitoring Committee (NRWMC) to investigate the feasibility of supplementing treated mains water used for non-potable purposes (NFGWS, 2008). This project involved the design, installation, commissioning and monitoring of rainwater harvesting (RWH) facilities in a domestic housing development and in an agricultural setting. A second study commenced in 2008 when DIT was commissioned by the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government (DOEHLG) to monitor water use and assess the efficiency of rainwater harvesting facilities installed in a primary national school. Daily / monthly rainfall, water demand, mains top-up were monitored and analysed for the domestic, agricultural and school sites. The Efficiency ratio (ET), Storage fraction (Sf), Demand fraction (Df), Overflow fraction (Of) were calculated for the three rainwater harvesting systems (RWH). An economic model was developed to calculate cost of producing one m³ of water using RWH , compare the Net Present Value (NPV) cost of RWH water supply versus mains water supply and to illustrate the preferred scenarios in Ireland under which RWH is economical viable. These include; Storage designed for no greater than 90% efficiency, capital grant allowance of minimum 30% coupled with a 50% reduction for householders with RWH. The cost of mains water per m3 is similarly priced as harvested rainwater per m3. In this study this equates to €8 per m3 A 20% reduction in free allowances to the householder coupled with a 50% reduction for householders with RWH

    Neuroimaging Findings for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in Adults: Critical Evaluation and Future Directions

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    Approximately 75% of those diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) exhibit motor problems in adulthood. Neuroimaging studies promise to reveal the endophenotypes of mature brain systems affected by DCD. The aim here was to review these publications. Bibliographic searches identified papers published before June 2019. Neuroimaging results revealed: functional abnormalities in the prefrontal, frontal and occipital regions, superior parietal lobe and cerebellum; structural white matter abnormalities in the corticospinal tract, internal capsule and inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi; significantly reduced interhemispheric cortical inhibition within the primary motor cortex (hPMC); lack of increased hPMC activity during a motor imagery task and a reduced leftwards brain asymmetry for speech. These results suggest complex endophenotypes for adults with DCD (DCDAs). However, the studies have shortcomings. For instance, all relied upon small and unrepresentative samples. Gender and age were not tested systematically. The effects of many co-occurring disorders were not controlled. Most studies relied on between group comparisons, which, given the heterogeneity of DCD, may obscure the results for underrepresented cases. Overall, the young field of neuroimaging studies of DCDAs reported interesting results; however, there is an urgent need for investigations to address these shortcomings. Future research directions, including cutting-edge neuroimaging techniques and imaging genetics, are discussed

    Teachers developing understanding of enquiry based learning

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    EdD ThesisA Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) project between an English state secondary school and a northern UK university from January 2008 to December 2009 was the first of its kind. It was designed to develop a community of enquiry within Key Stage 3 and a formative assessment framework for enquiry skills. Upon its completion, I moved from being the main researcher on the project to a position of senior leadership in another school. Here, I found that the contrasting experiences of leading a divergent approach to pedagogy in one school and then adhering to dominant discourses of performativity in another school created tensions between my personal beliefs about teaching and learning and the expectations of externally imposed agenda in UK education. My thesis is therefore motivated by a personal desire to explore whether the teachers with whom I worked during the KTP project experienced similar tensions and uncertainties when developing their understanding of enquiry based learning. My conceptual framework comprises an evolving view of curriculum change through teacher professional learning and teacher agency. This complements the theme of underlying social and cultural issues which runs throughout my work. My research strategy is qualitative and my methodology is dialogic. My accounts of the research process and its findings are interpretive and validated in the form of feedback loops. Findings demonstrate teachers’ theoretical understandings of enquiry. They also provide reasons why teachers include or omit enquiry from their teaching practice over time. Indeed, teacher agency is mostly ‘internal’. Where it exists externally, teacher agency is often ‘contractual’. Teachers come to terms with the dominant factors of their social and cultural contexts and reduce their pedagogic practice to ‘pseudo-enquiry’. As further study, the concepts of ‘internal’ and ‘contractual’ agency are useful lenses for exploring curriculum change and understanding teachers’ professional learning

    A Narrative Exploration of Lived Experiences of Mental Health Difficulties in Trainee Mental Health Practitioners

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    This thesis portfolio comprises three parts and considers the experiences of trainee mental health practitioners’ lived experiences of mental health difficulties.Part One: Systematic Literature ReviewPart one contains a systematic literature review exploring help-seeking and sharing among mental health professionals in training with lived experiences of mental health difficulties. A systematic search of five databases identified eight suitable papers, of which the findings are demonstrated using a narrative synthesis. Five central factors and themes emerged. Conclusions and clinical implications are discussed.Part Two: Empirical Paper Part two is a qualitative empirical study which explores trainee clinical psychologists’ lived experiences of mental health difficulties and the meanings made from these experiences, by hearing their stories. A narrative analysis applied two perspectives to consider the stories’ content and form. Conclusions and implications for practice are reflected.Part Three: Appendices Part three consists of the appendices supporting parts one and two and includes a reflective and epistemological statement

    Letter from Anna Reid Waterman to Emma and Dan[iel Muir], 1889 Jul 21.

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    Crete, Neb.July 21, 1889.Dear Aunt Emma & Uncle Dave,Mother told me of the little stranger that has [illegible] come into your house. Accept congratulations if it is not too late. Kiss the little fellow for me and tell him we would like to see him in Crete with his mother before so very long, and his father too if business is not too pressing. How delighted we would be to have you all make me a visit in my own new home. We have been married almost ten weeks. How the time does fly & can hardly realize that it has been so long. I have a very happy home. All come and see me. I want to thank you heartily for the nice sugar spoon you sent me. I hardly know what you can thing of me for being so long in acknowledging it, but that is just one of my many faults to put off letter writing. I have written just two letters since I have been married and one of those was to my father. Forgive my negligence and accept many thanks. Our trip east was enjoyed thoroughly. We were away two weeks taking in Omaha, Plattsmouth and Chicago. We were pleased to get home and settled after so much sightseeing. With lots of love to all I will close.Lovingly yours - Anna Reid Waterma

    Sam\u27s Story

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    We are exploring presenting mental health topics in video games through the eyes of an axolotl named Sam. Sam goes about his day to day life facing many difficult challenges regarding their mental health. This is an educational game to inform about different mental health symptoms and what they may look like

    Business as Usual: Business Students\u27 Conceptions of Ethics

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    There is continuing debate about how best to teach ethics to students in business, that is, how best to help them to develop the ethical aspects of their future profession. This debate has covered whether to teach ethics, what to teach and whether it has any effect on students\u27 views or future behaviour. For the most part, the views of the students themselves are in the minority. Yet it seems likely that the most effective pedagogical approaches would be those based on students’ own ideas of the nature of ethics and the role of ethical considerations in their studies and professional lives. The research we report here investigates the nature of such ideas in a cohort of students studying business at an Australian university. We discuss the pedagogical implications of our findings and conclude that approaches that encourage students to become ethically-aware professionals are likely to be most useful

    Connecting experiences to employability through a meaning-making approach to learning

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    A key part of the student experience in the higher education context is employability. There is an expectation that universities will contribute to their students’ employability and indeed they are measured on this contribution and are allocated funding based on it. Despite the importance of employability in higher education, it remains a complex and contested concept, often conflated with employment – graduates in jobs and the roles they occupy – and seen as a quantifiable outcome of the student experience. Where employability is understood as an individual’s knowledge, capabilities, and personal attributes that make them more likely to gain employment and be successful in their professional lives, it is often framed by the discourse of skills. There are some employability models, however, that champion a more holistic view of employability and highlight the role that experiences play in individual employability development. This paper reports on the development of an institutional employability framework and reflective process in an Australian research-intensive university. The paper discusses the experiential learning theories that underpin the reflective process that supports students to understand and articulate employability learning, for framing narratives around the potential to contribute to an organisation for employment, and for the transfer of this potential to professional contexts. The framework and reflective process represent employability as a learning process through which students make meaning from their experiences and learning opportunities. This involves understanding the value of their experiences, how to articulate that value, and how to transfer it to workplace performanc
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